The purpose of this article is to conduct a comparative analysis of methods for assessing the technical condition of buildings and structures. The article considers various approaches to assessing the technical condition of buildings and structures, reviews and compares methods, identifies key differences between the foreign approach and the domestic one. The review of methods for assessing the technical condition presented in the article allows us to conclude that a variety of methods can create certain difficulties when choosing and using them. The analysis of domestic and foreign experience has shown that the most popular today are systems for monitoring the technical condition of buildings and structures, involving a set of measures using modern assessment, modeling and forecasting technologies that allow obtaining operational information about the technical condition of buildings.
Keywords: physical wear, operation, technical condition assessment, monitoring, operational qualities, instrumental examination, expert-normative method, cost compensation method
The article discusses the organizational aspects of the inspection of building envelopes and structures within the framework of construction and technical expertise using an instrumental measuring method. The implementation of a comprehensive field survey in identifying certain structural defects is necessary, however, the methods used by experts have significant differences in the accuracy of the results provided and the simplicity and ease of implementation, which affects the progress of the work.
Keywords: construction and technical expertise, building structures, quality of construction works, non-destructive testing, destructive testing, inspection methods
Judicial construction and technical expertise is used to resolve disputes between customers and project executors and is carried out on the direct order of legal entities or individuals, including in connection with the need to provide expert information to the court. In the course of construction and technical research, various kinds of tasks arise before the expert, the solution of which allows us to formulate answers to the questions posed in the framework of the study.
Keywords: forensic construction and technical expertise, expert opinion, tasks of the expertise, questions of the expertise, expert-builder, inspection of the object.
The article considers the impact of wind flow on buildings and structures. The analysis of the influence of wind pressure on buildings of various shapes is carried out. The three main effects of wind occurring around wind-sensitive buildings are indicated. A comparison of three building forms was made. It is established that the round shape of the building in the plan has a smaller moment of resistance from wind gusts and from the force of resistance. It is determined that these parameters are higher in the case of square and rectangular buildings.
Keywords: wind, pressure, load, urban ecology, building shape, aeration, urbanization, ecoclimate
The article considers the analysis of a manual mechanized tool for rescuing victims from rubble and traffic accidents. The statistics provided by the GUOBDD of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia are given, where traffic accidents in Tyumen and the Tyumen region are displayed. The advantages and disadvantages of a mechanized rescue tool are described. A study was carried out on the modernization of rescue tools, a design for reverse sharpening of the cutting element of hand shears was proposed to prevent bending and jamming of the metal.
Keywords: power tool, hand tool, emergency, traffic accident, research
Currently, artificial intelligence is gaining more and more development in various sectors of the national economy. However, he is not able to function without the control of a person and helps him in solving a narrow range of tasks. In the article, based on the analysis of leaders in the implementation of AI, the prospects for its development are considered. The role of company management in projects for the implementation of AI tools and methods is emphasized. The possibilities of introducing AI methods in the construction industry are considered. It is proposed at the initial stage to apply machine data processing to solve logistics problems. The main stages of the implementation of AI elements for construction organizations are proposed.
Keywords: artificial intelligence, construction, supply, material resources
The article considers the social aspect of the sustainable development of urban areas, as well as the social nature of the emergence of the city as a complex urban ecosystem. Foreign and domestic examples are given, allowing to establish a direct relationship between urban users and their places of residence. Practical recommendations for improving the quality of the urban environment are given.
Keywords: urbanization, landscaping, sustainable development, integrated assessment
The doelectric and polarization studies of the system of solid solutions PbxSr1-xTiO3 with x = 0.005, 0.02, 0.04 in a broad frequency and temperature range are performed. The temperature of the ferroelectric phase transition in the solid solutions is determined. The temperature behaviour of the remanent polarization at the phase transition is established.
Keywords: quantum paraelectric, strontium titanate, dielectric permittivity, remanent poalrization, superparaelectric state, phase transition
Concentration changes in the frequencies of Raman scattering spectra in binary molten salt systems of alkali metals with a common cation containing halide, nitrate and perchlorate anions are shown. The frequency constancy is noted when the composition of molten salt systems changes.
Keywords: melts, nitrates, perchlorates, alkali metal halides, raman spectra, binary salt systems
In the article, the authors note that current threats, challenges, risks and related global problems, and the urgent need for the use of renewable energy sources is coming to the fore in the life of modern societies. It is highlighted that there is a necessity to treat technological progress in correlation with modern science in Russian society, and it should be noted that nowadays the current policy in the field of ensuring climate agreements is subject to legal uncertainty. The authors conduct cognitive modeling and construct a cognitive model.
Keywords: global problems of modernity, information technologies, cognitive modeling, cyber operations
The paper considers the model of management of maintenance of the transport fleet of the territorial body of the Penal System of the Russian Federation. Using the theory of queuing, possible states of the system are identified, a graph of states is constructed, a system of differential equations describing the dynamics of the process under consideration is given, taking into account the application of the prioritization scheme when carrying out maintenance and repair of vehicles. In order to refine the model, it is proposed to use a neural network model (multilayer perceptron) to calculate the failure rates and restore special vehicles. Calculation formulas for the implementation of the learning algorithm of the considered artificial neural network by the method of error back propagation are given. The model proposed in the work can be used to build automated decision support systems in the field of operation and repairs, as well as to improve the material and technical support of institutions and bodies of the Penal System of the Russian Federation.
Keywords: maintenance, reliability, queuing system, multilayer perceptron, error back propagation method, special transport of the Penal System
The article is devoted to the development of numerical methods for determining the position of the center of gravity and the static stability margin of an aircraft in flight. To perform the calculations, a number of mathematical models were developed. Based on the analysis of the motion of an aircraft as a rigid body, numerical methods for determining the position of the center of gravity are synthesized and their errors are calculated. Comparison of the errors of various methods made it possible to conclude that it is expedient to use a method based on the use of information on the fuel reserve.
Keywords: simulation of the position of the center of gravity, numerical analysis of the position of the center of gravity, moments of inertia of the aircraft, free oscillations, fuel consumption.
The features of the mathematical, algorithmic and software of the developed simulator-training system (STS) for the control of visual modeling skills in the preparation of students in areas of automation, informatization, robotization are considered. The use of STS allows you to automatically generate individual options for practical tasks for the development and analysis of visual models, automatically evaluate the correctness of the tasks performed by students, form advising influences for the student (remarks and recommendations for a better understanding of the topic under study). The use of STS in the process of monitoring the initial skills of visual modeling in students will: reduce the need for manual compilation of a large number of options for tasks by the teacher and subsequent verification of the results of their implementation; improve the quality of education, taking into account the specifics of the areas of student training under consideration.
Keywords: information systems in education, training system, automated control of knowledge and skills, visual modeling, unified modeling language (UML)
The article presents the results of a full-factor experiment and analyzesthe impact of various factors, such as the number of transitions a tape machine, the characteristics of an infrared laser diode and a the humidity of the material on the magnitude of the signal response when infrared radiation passes through the tape.
Keywords: fiber mixing quality, infrared estimation method, planning matrix, regression equation, model adequacy
International transport-logistics corridors represent the most optimal routes in terms of structure and direction for the spatial movement of goods by various modes of transport. The routes of international transport-logistics corridors pass through the most rational directions. International transport-logistics corridors are the result of integration of the transport systems of neighboring countries into a common single common route. They pursue the goal of ensuring sustainable and reliable transportation of goods both between the countries participating in international transport and logistics corridors, and in the direction of other countries. This ensures the economic efficiency of joint transportation of goods. Therefore, international transport -logistics corridors perform an important transit function, ensuring the passage of large trade and logistics flows. In order to systematize various types of international transport and logistics corridors, their typology is being carried out. The authors of this article consider various types of international transport-logistics corridors, identified according to the most important criteria. According to the purposes of creation and the economic functions performed, transit, developing and trade international transport and logistics corridors were identified. According to the type of communication carried out, the corridors are represented by various types of land, water and air transport. On a spatial basis, trans-European, pan-European corridors, trans-Asian and North American corridors are distinguished. According to the type of transportation, corridors are classified into freight, passenger and cargo-passenger. Depending on the ratio of the parties involved, the corridors are two-sided, unequal and one-sided.
Keywords: international transport-logistics corridors, transportation, typology, typological approach, transport and logistics flow, cargo transportation, international transportation, transport systems
The problem of data transformation in which calculations are carried out in parallel streams is considered. The goal is to draw up such a plan for the parallel assignment of data by performers, in which the conditions of validity, reliability, redundancy and adequacy of data suitable for further analysis will be satisfied. At the same time, taking into account the desire to complete data conversion cycles in the shortest possible time. The use of transport-type models is proposed for the solution. In contrast to two-dimensional minimax models by the criterion of time, the possibility of transformation of information is considered, both at source points and at destination points. The proposed model allows you to take into account the time of data delivery between processing sites. The influence of possible rules for moving information packets through intermediate points on the final value of the management quality indicator is shown.
Keywords: information chains, transport task, minimum time criterion, processing costs, data reliability
The given review of hygrothermal processes in the processing of grain crops, their features is presented from the standpoint of nanotechnology. It is shown that for the developed nanotechnologies in the production of agricultural products, it is necessary to apply non-traditional methods of process research, which is the method of similarity of the functioning of technical systems (SFTS). This method will allow for the processes of humidification, drying, wet-heat treatment in vacuum conditions to obtain generalized similarity criteria, determine their numerical values and obtain generalized criterion dependences of the intensity of the processes under consideration on the processing parameters. The implementation of the method will allow us to quantitatively describe the processes of hygrothermal grain processing in vacuum conditions, assign processing parameters and manage them. Mathematical models of hygrothermal processes have been developed based on the method of similarity of the functioning of technical systems depending on the parameters of the medium and the structure of capillary-porous grain shells.
Keywords: hydrothermal effects, grain crops, vacuum, nanotechnology, humidification, drying, wet-heat treatment, capillary-porous materials, microcapillary, the criterion of sublbiya, the method of similarity of the functioning of technical systems
Difference games settings of the two-level and three-level dynamic quality management in an organizational-economic system with corruption are proposed. A quality indicator is considered as a state variable that changes in time due to a dynamic equation. A satisfaction of some quality requirements is obligatory, in the three-level model penalties are charged otherwise. The paper develops a concept of modeling of corruption in the hierarchical control systems from the point of view of the necessary conditions of sustainable development. Some hypotheses of model identification are discussed.
Keywords: quality management, modeling of corruption, dynamic games
In modern conditions, the healthcare system is going through a stage of active implementation of information and analytical tools. In the regions contaminated with radionuclides as a result of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, activities for the prevention, detection and management of cases of thyroid diseases are of particular importance. Modern formalized methods of analysis, such as methods for searching for association rules, clustering using self-organizing maps, have sufficient functionality and effectiveness to be introduced as sources of new knowledge about the signs of thyroid diseases. In this paper, the authors consider the stages and results of developing a software package for information and analytical support for the process of examining the thyroid gland using ultrasound.
Keywords: diversification of management, production diversification, financial and economic purposes of a diversification, technological purposes of ensuring flexibility of production
This article describes the results of research on the possibility of detecting sunflower plants from photographs taken by a UAV. The solution to this problem will allow automated control of an important agricultural parameter - seedling density. The problem is complicated by the limited amount of training sample and "disturbances" associated with field weeding. As the result we obtain that the YOLOv5m neural network is capable on a sample of 122 pictures to qualitatively detect plants with an error of 0.077% of training. Artificially increasing the sample to 363 pictures reduces the learning error to 0.063%. Disturbances reduce the detection efficiency of sunflower plants in the test images. It is possible to increase the detection efficiency either by adding original images to the training sample or by artificially enlarging the sample.
Keywords: detection, YOLOv5, sunflower, seedling density, neural network
The purpose of the study is to establish the regularities of a stable hydrodynamic regime by applying a fluoroplastic–containing composite polymer material to the support profile. Research methods: new models have been proposed describing the movement of a lubricant with truly viscous rheological properties in the laminar motion mode in the approximation for a "thin layer", in the working gap of a radial bearing with a support profile having a polymer coating with a groove, the continuity equation. A comparative analysis of the obtained results is carried out, confirming the approximation of the obtained model to practice. As a result of the study, a significant expansion of the possibilities for assessing the operational characteristics of the bearing has been achieved: the magnitude of hydrodynamic pressure, load capacity and coefficient of friction.
Keywords: radial bearing, increased wear resistance, antifriction polymer composite coating, groove, hydrodynamic mode, verification
The article considers the problem of optimizing the scheme of portages in a cutting area. The mathematical model of the cutting area is a polygon - a bounded closed broken part of the plane. The portage scheme corresponds to a root graph (forest, tree) of a special type. We have introduced the concept of covering a polygon with a rooted forest. The cover is interpreted as the possibility of cutting and collecting all the trees in the cutting area while moving the harvester and forwarder along the trails. The trails are laid according to the found covering root forest. Two variants of the algorithm for solving the problem are proposed, which are a modification of the local search. The first algorithm uses the greedy method we described earlier to find the underlying solution. The second algorithm uses the branch and bound method to find the basic solution. Comparative experiments were carried out on polygons sized 12x12 and 18x18. Experimental results show that both modifications of the algorithm improve the basic solution. The first algorithm improves the solution by an average of 11% for a 12x12 polygon and by 24% for a 18x18 polygon.
Keywords: portage schemes, cutting area, polygon covering the root forest, local search, coverage