The article reveals the problem, that arises as a result of generalized training of specialists according to the International Electrotechnical Commission standard 61131-3. The standard regulates the languages in which software is developed for programmable logic controllers. Training according to the standard allows a specialist to work with any controllers developed by any manufacturers, the downside of which is an insufficiently in-depth studying of the additional potentials of controllers, that are typical for the models of the particular manufacturer. Further, we consider a number of specific special functions of the FBD language using the example of programmable relays LOGO! by Siemens, which are not typical for the other devices, that work in this language, then we observe the examples of using these functions in various technological processes. Also, we get to know the abilities to transfer the parameters betweenparts of the program by using so-called link and the features of the implementationof pulse-width modulation in LOGO! controllers.And finally,we comprehend methods of working with analog signals including analog calculations and the option of non-standard using of the minimum/maximum search function as a storage element.A lot of developers ignore similar functions, because they are not covered in the training courses. Using of special functions simplifies the development of programs and provides additional capabilities for the programmer.Therefore, the necessity of a deeper studying of the capabilities of a certain controller seems to be apparent.
Keywords: programmable logic controllers, functional block diagrams, specialist training, analog signal processing, rarely used functions
The objective of this study is to determine the patterns of development of new information technologies in the industry and formulate the main barriers to their introduction into project activities. The study of the issue was carried out on the basis of scientific publications of domestic and foreign researchers. The main theoretical methods are used: analysis, classification, analogy and synthesis. This article makes a comparative analysis of the use of modern technologies in European countries according to the "center-periphery" scheme and shows the similarities of information processes between Russia and European countries. The success of promoting innovative developments in the construction sector depends on: the presence of major players in the construction market, government support, the introduction of new educational standards, standardization of information modeling. The main obstacles are related to the compatibility of all processes in one digital space, legal and legal norms, issues of training and education.
Keywords: building information modeling, government order, BIM standardization, construction education, innovation, international experience
The analysis of accuracy in obtaining geospace information while monitoring railway infrastructure objects by different methods such as geodesic, photogrammetric and remote sensing is carried out in the article. Tachymeter and global navigation satellite systems are used as geodesic methods. Aerial photography by means of unmanned aerial vehicles are referred to photogrammetric methods. Remote sensing was carried out on the basis of 3 D laser scanning technologies. The accuracy of performed measurements is considered for the scale 1:500.
Keywords: global navigation satellite systems, unmanned aerial vehicles, geospace information, accuracy of measurements, 3 D laser scanning, tachymeter
This article discusses and demonstrates the need for writing and functioning of a high-quality information security system for a modern enterprise that performs activities in various fields (industry, energy, humanitarian activities, etc.). Its role in creating conditions is also analyzed. for the economic security of the organization itself and the country as a whole. The paper presents the current classification of information security threats. The activities that are aimed at protecting data in the world of the modern world are analyzed once again, and examples of activities aimed at protecting data in the world of the modern world are given, as well as an example of the most common reasons for its leakage today.
Keywords: information security, economic security of an enterprise, information protection, threats and risks of information security, artificial intelligence
Different types of management structures used in enterprises are considered. Such structures are traditionally divided into three types according to the number and types of control relations. A basic dynamic incentive model with the simplest management structure, which includes one Principal and one agent, is presented. The basic dynamic model of stimulation is based on the static model, its solution having already been found. To reduce the number of experiments, the method of qualitatively representative scenarios for finding optimal inputs has been used. Experimental results for the basic dynamic model are presented. The simulation results allow us to determine the solution of the problem in the dynamic form, and provide a foundation for future research using other more complex control structures.
Keywords: incentive model, hierarchical game, system-dynamic modeling, dynamic model, control mechanism, principal, agent
The article discusses one of the approaches to the management of the ore grinding circuit, in particular, the process of loading the ore mill. For maximum performance, the mill must be loaded 47-50%, there are several ways to measure the mill load level. In this paper, we consider one of the methods of measuring the level of loading of the mill, in order to control the loading of the mill. The article investigates the prospect of using an extreme controller in conjunction with the observer States in the implementation of the control circuits mill loading. The resulting control system produces load control based on the current drive power of the mill. The peculiarity of this control system is that it is able not only to control the mill, but also to recognize the overload and take measures to prevent an emergency. There is no need for additional subsystems and algorithms. In addition, two models of management systems were developed and their effectiveness was compared. The advantages of using the state observer with respect to the classical extreme regulator are indicated.
Keywords: ball mill, automating, mathematical model, control loop, observer state, extreme controller
The most important task of the admissions committee of any university is to advise applicants on admission to the specialties available at the university. In this article, an automated information system has been developed, which, based on the applicant's questionnaire, allows you to form recommendations when choosing a training specialty, taking into account the applicant's personal preferences. Artificial neural networks are proposed to be used as a method of choice, and the multilayer perceptron (MLP) was the model of the neural network.
Keywords: neural network, career guidance, multilayer perceptron, neural network training, methods, automated information system, training directions
The article presents the dependence of the change in the intensity of emission during the passage of an infrared flux through a two-component material, which allows for a fractional assessment of a mixture of natural and chemical fibers. On the basis of the obtained dependence on experimental data, a mathematical model has been constructed that makes it possible to quantify the distribution of dissimilar fibers in a mixture. The modelling results showed that after the second transition on the draw frame, the so-called "stretching" defect is observed, which characterizes the uneven distribution of fibers in the product cross section.
Keywords: emission intensity, infrared evaluation method, mixing of dissimilar fibers, fractional composition, measuring device
An urgent task in the context of digitalization of all spheres of society is to create a system of protection against the negative impact of digital images on the person. The solution to this problem is impossible without assessing the subliminal impact of audio-visual information. The study presents a solution to the problem of systematization of subliminal factors of audio-visual information and optimization of methods to deal with them. Risk factors and limitations as the basis for the design of the protection system at the level of technical.
Keywords: information security, modeling, risk factors, subliminal impact, digital image
This paper proposes an accurate and dynamic method for diagnosing of crop diseases. This method adopts Bayesian networks to represent the relationships among the symptoms and crop diseases. This method has one main difference from the existing diagnosis methods - it does not use all the symptoms in the diagnosis, but purposively selects a subset of symptoms which are the most relevant to diagnosis; the active symptom selection is based on the concept of a Markov blanket in a Bayesian network. Theoretical analysis demonstrates that the proposed method can significantly enhance the performance of crop disease diagnosis.
Keywords: plant disease recognition, mathematical model, Bayesian network, machine learning, Markov blanket
A model is proposed for selecting potentially interesting events for a person, in accordance with his requests and wishes, in order to achieve the goal of increasing the effectiveness of informing the population about cultural events of the city, and, as a result, improving the cultural level of society, Describes the implementation of the model in the form of a software product, which, with the help of intelligent data selection algorithms, allows you to simplify the process of searching for both potential cultural events that are interesting for a person, and new participants for their organizers. The criteria for selecting the event of interest and the process of selecting them in accordance with the degree of importance to the user are described. Formulas for calculating the final coefficients that serve as a numerical characteristic of the optimality of the event for a particular user are given. An example of the implementation of the proposed algorithm is given.
Keywords: intellectual search, selection criteria, cultural level, selection of events, forecasting
Dynamic Bayesian networks are a universal tool for modeling stochastic processes that take place over time. In the process of describing transient probabilities of dynamic Bayesian networks, Markov circuits with discrete time are used. However, there are situations where the residence time in the states of a dynamic Bayesian network can be described by an arbitrary law of distribution, due to the features of modeling the subject area. To describe transients in such networks, half-Mark processes are used. The paper describes the mathematical apparatus of the application of the theory of semi-Markov processes for constructing the probabilities of models and solving the problems of probabilistic inference of dynamic Bayesian networks. What is described is a procedure for distributing evidence in the process of transitioning between the time states of the dynamic model under consideration based on the algorithm of selection by significance.
Keywords: dynamic Bayesian network, semi-Markov chains, method of nested Markov chains, probabilistic inference, transition model, state model, algorithm of selection by significance
Cast iron occupies one of the most important places among structural materials and is widely used in the manufacture of critical automotive parts.The article examines the possibility of processing gray cast iron by surface plastic deformation (SPD) and the study of its hardening depth in order to control the stress-strain state (SSS) of the surfaces of parts. Modeling is carried out, calculations are close to the real situation, a three-dimensional finite element model is used. The data obtained were analyzed by the least squares method (LSM), graphs were plotted.Also, based on the data obtained, it was found that the relationship between the degree of plastic deformation, the diameter of the indenter and the depth of work hardening is an equation that describes the surface. The carried out researches and the received dependence allow to increase the accuracy of forecasting of results of processing of PPD cast iron.
Keywords: grey iron,plastic deformation, bilinear deformation diagram, indentation depth, spherical indenter
There are two main problems that slow down the wind industry - these are large losses in the kinematic characteristics of the wind flow during its use and small gusts of wind in non-northern regions of the Russian Federation. The designed confuser-diffuser system is able to solve these problems by increasing the KIEV (Wind Energy Utilization Factor). In the article, the previously designed systems for incrementing the kinematic parameters of the wind, which are installed on the developed wind turbine with a vertical axis of rotation "Object 1-U", were analyzed.
Keywords: confuser, diffuser, confuser-diffuser system, Venturi effect, momentum conservation law, contraction ratio, Fibonacci numbers
The lack of clear recommendations in the regulatory and scientific literature on laying a heating network in an impassable channel not only increases the construction time, but also leads to serious design errors, which entail a decrease in the service life of the engineering network and the occurrence of emergencies at the facility. In this article, a methodology for a numerical experiment of laying a heating network in an impassable channel was developed, an experiment was planned with the choice of controlled factors. Data processing and analysis of the reliability of the results were carried out in order to simplify construction in urban conditions.
Keywords: channels of heating mains renovation, stressed-deformed state, methodology, numerical experiment, closed channel, experimental planning theory, finite element method, mathematical modeling, "black box"
The topic of balancing on the brink is extremely relevant under present conditions of the real threat of nuclear war. A game-theoretic model is presented that describes the process of brinkmanship using the Caribbean crisis as an example. The results of research on such models and, accordingly, recommendations for decision makers depend significantly on the specific numerical values of the players' payoffs and the probabilities of certain events. Therefore, it is advisable to develop a software package that allows you to set different values of these parameters and conduct simulations for various control scenarios. The article proposes a program for implementing this approach.
Keywords: brinkmanship, extended form games, simulation
The article presents the creation of a software platform for automatic configuration of ground facilities systems using ontological models, intelligent algorithms for selecting objects and generating options. The mathematical formulation of the configuration problem, the architecture of the application and the user interface for entering design data and obtaining the result of selecting objects with a high degree of detail are given. In the future, the developed prototype can become a tool to support the work of system engineers and technologists at the stage of conceptual design during the variable study of the configuration of the oil and gas system, taking into account the requirements.
Keywords: conceptual design, field development, systems engineering, ontological engineering, ontology of the oil and gas system, function-oriented ontology, autoconfiguration of the oil and gas system, formalization of the system configuration procedure
Methods and technologies for solving the problem of patent landscape visualization based on cluster analysis of the patent array are considered and used. Algorithms for downloading patent archives, parsing patent documents, clustering patents and visualizing the patent landscape have been developed. A software for clustering patent documents based on the Latent Dirichlet allocation model and visualization of the patent landscape on clustering data using the gensim, PySpark, and sklearn libraries has been implemented. The implemented software has been tested on patents issued by the US Patent and Trademark Office. The accuracy of classification of patents by category has been achieved - 84%.
Keywords: patents, information extraction, clustering, patent landscape, innovation potential
The article highlights the distinguishing features of low-code, no-code platforms, their advantages and disadvantages, reviews existing research in the field of low-code, no-code development, discusses the main components of the platform being designed and fragments of algorithms responsible for generating program code.
Keywords: low-code, no-code, software development, laravel, platform design
One of the important components of the ethnocultural heritage of the Republic of Tuva is the analysis of the texts of Tuvan heroic epics. In the scientific database of the Tuva Institute for humanitarian and Applied socio-economic research of the Republic of Tyva tape and handwritten recordings of all genres of Tuvan folklore are stored, including in old dilapidated editions of about 300 Tuvan heroic epics. Nowadays, the electronic database "Tuva heroic epics" has been created by teachers and students of Tuva State University. This collection is embedded in the electronic corpus of the Tuvan language. This collection contains digitized texts of Tuvan heroic epic, their meta-descriptions and information about the storytellers. Using this electronic collection, it is possible to solve linguistic and philological problems, which are reduced to the problem of conceptual modeling of the collection "Tuvan heroic epics". In this article, the task of establishing the author's style of narrators when describing horse equipment in the works of the Tuvan heroic epic is considered. To solve this problem, an algebraic approach is used, which in the literature is called the formal concept analysis. Within the framework of formal concept analysis, the collection " Tuvan heroic epics" is presented as a formal context. Then the solution of the problem is aimed at identifying the set of all formal concepts of the formal context and linking them into a lattice. The resulting lattice serves as a conceptual model and a basis for solving the problem.
Keywords: electronic corpus of the Tuvan language, Tuvan heroic epic, author's style of the narrator, pattern recognition, formal concept analysis
The paper considers approaches to optimizing the composition and structure of distributed generation complex for various criteria, such as the cost of electricity and reliability of electricity supply. Based on domestic and world experience, the most promising method of optimization, as applied to the tasks of distributed generation, is carried out. A comparative assessment of traditional optimization methods and methods based on variations of population (evolutionary) algorithms is given.
Keywords: distributed generation, optimization methods, structure of distributed generation plants, cost of electricity, reliability of electricity supply
The work is devoted to solving the problem of increasing the efficiency of registration of access of employees of the organization to confidential information. A technique is proposed that allows automating the intellectual activity of employees of the personnel body and the information protection unit to analyze information about an employee in order to determine the possibility of his admission to the protected information. The comparison of the information indicated in the questionnaire submitted by the citizen and the supporting documents is carried out using the Levenstein metric calculated by the Wagner-Fischer algorithm. Predicate logic is used to identify possible grounds for denial of access to confidential information.
Keywords: employee, organization, process, efficiency, confidential information, automation, algorithm, metric, predicate
Electronics is the most capacious and rapidly developing industry in our country. Modern methods of designing electronic devices are unthinkable without the use of computer technology, in particular, specialized programs for computer analysis and modeling of circuit diagrams of the devices being developed. Intelligence is the key link in electronics at the present stage of its development. This is due to the emergence and widespread adoption of microcircuits such as microcontrollers. This aspect provides fundamentally new opportunities for solving a wide variety of tasks, including tasks of a strategic orientation that require prompt solutions. All this became possible primarily because devices based on a microcontroller require algorithmic and further software, which makes it possible to create intelligent systems and devices. One such device will be discussed in this article. The developed device is a system consisting directly of a control system, an actuating device, which is a decision-making device, a power unit and peripheral devices. The article explains the idea, the principle of operation of the developed device, the structural and schematic diagrams of the developed main blocks of the device, as well as their algorithmic support, which is based on the principle of intelligent control. The developed device is designed to automatically maintain the level of illumination at the level set by the operator in the premises of industrial enterprises.
Keywords: intelligent control, sensor unit, binary code, synchronization circuit, transistor switch, bus driver, optosimistor, control system, actuator, power unit