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  • Reviews, suggestions and discussions

  • On the scientific priority of Perm scientists in modeling the "psychology" of human digital twins

    The paper describes the main scientific results obtained under the guidance of Professor O. G. Pensky from Perm. The results are devoted to mathematical modeling of the behavior of the so-called digital twins, which are psychological analogs of a person. The paper formulates theorems describing the dangers of artificial intelligence to humans from a psychological point of view and proposes general models of dialectical development of the virtual world for digital twins. The paper describes the research of mathematical models developed together with the Israeli scientist O. L. Figovsky. These models are designed to calculate the coefficients of the influence of one person on another and make it possible to determine the degree of their mutual influence during their communication. It also reports on research into algorithms for intuition, insight, and hypnosis of digital twins. The article describes the difference between the studies carried out by the group of Professor O. G. Pensky and the research of its predecessors.

    Keywords: psychology of robots, human digital twin, psychological characteristics, mathematical models, dialectics, human society, artificial intelligence, robot safety, mutual influence of robots, temperament of digital twins

  • Physical and mathematical sciences. Physics

  • Georadar study of soil pollution in the Franz Josef Land Archipelago

    In July and August 2019, the Grott ground penetrating radar was used as part of the field work of the Russian Arctic National Park, a federally funded institution, to survey areas polluted by oil products on Alexandra Island in the Franz Josef Land Archipelago. The results obtained are discussed and conclusions are drawn about the prospects of using the method of ultra-wideband electromagnetic sounding to solve environmental problems in the permafrost zone in the Arctic region.

    Keywords: national park, Arctic, pollution, waste, soil, rock, georadar, ecosystem, sounding, radarogram, infiltrate

  • Using numerical simulation to calculate the motion of an ion beam in a laser mass spectrometer EMAL-2

    The article considers the dynamics of an ion beam in a laser mass – EMAL-2 spectrometer.a numerical model based on the "large - particle" method is Implemented, taking into account the influence of spatial charge fields and the interaction of charged particles with the field of an electrodynamic system. The software package that implements the mathematical model of ion beam motion consists of two parts. The first part is a program written in C++, in which initial conditions are set, the Coulomb interaction between large particles is calculated using the "particle-particle" method, the system of differential equations (1) is integrated using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method, and the results are recorded and processed. The second part is a script for the FreeFem++ package, which implements the solution of partial differential equations using the finite element method. A series of numerical experiments and their comparison with the data obtained experimentally are carried out.

    Keywords: large particle method, laser mass spectrometer, particle-particle method, electrodynamic system, Runge-Kutta method, laser plasma, magnetic analyzer, ion beam, focusing system, triangulation

  • Technical science. Informatics, computer facilities and management

  • System for detecting surface defects in materials of engineering structures

    The article describes the implementation methodology, structure and functional diagram of a surface defect detection system based on the method of electrical impedance tomography in materials of engineering structures that are subjected to significant loads during operation. A control device for the system for collecting measurements and supplying voltage to the boundary electrodes of the sensing element is considered and an algorithm for its operation is described. The implementation method is proposed and the simulation results of this system are presented.

    Keywords: defect monitoring, non-destructive testing, electrical impedance tomography, modeling, sensitive element, functional diagram

  • Modelling and control for quadrocopter based on fuzzy logic controller

    Currently, the drone is used in many situations where a manned flight is considered difficult, too risky, or in some cases impossible. In recent years, drones (drones) have become very popular due to their ease of use and their versatility. The urgency of the task of synthesis of control systems for unmanned aerial vehicles is characterized by the complexity of their mathematical model and a large number of experimentally determined parameters. This article proposes a methodology for designing a model of a regulatory system with a fuzzy logical controller. The results of simulation of a system with a fuzzy logic controller are presented.

    Keywords: quadrotor, UAV, fuzzy-logical control, dynamics, roll, pitch, Yaw

  • Dynamic control of the microcontroller core power supply voltage

    The article deals with the power supply of the microcontroller core, which allows you to adjust the voltage to ensure the necessary balance between performance and power consumption of the system. When using this source, the core power supply voltage depends on the fill factor of the pulse-width modulated generator. These expressions allow you to adapt the proposed source for a microcontroller with an arbitrary power supply voltage.

    Keywords: microcontroller, microprocessor system, embedded system, stabilizer, core power, performance, power consumption, video surveillance system, pulse-width modulation, fill factor

  • Selection of computer-aided design systems based on functional completeness criteria

    An overview of modern tools for computer-aided design of technical systems is given. Using the method of comparing systems by the criterion of functional completeness, their main functionality, compliance with standards, and additional specialized applications are analyzed. It is shown how much computer-aided design systems accepted for comparison have differences or similarities in terms of functional completeness. Using the method of formalized functional completeness analysis allows us to assess the level of compliance of systems with the requirements at the stage of preliminary analysis, form a group of systems that have the same functional completeness and analyze them by other criteria. Based on the formalized analysis of functional completeness, the choice of the Autodesk Inventor system for the development and research of a new design of the mechanism for moving a tunneling explosive-bulk complex was made. It was used to generate the shape of the support frame of the complex in conjunction with the movement mechanism and made a preliminary analysis of the safety margin of the metal structure. The value of the coefficient of safety margin, taking into account the gravity of the structure with a different combination of influencing factors, ranges from 20.11 to 43.2. This makes it possible to conduct research under load in critical operating modes.

    Keywords: computer-aided design systems, functional completeness analysis, formalized analysis, three-dimensional modeling, animation, superiority graph, similarity graph, absorption graph

  • Clustering data using the growing neural gas method

    The article discusses the problems that arise in pattern recognition related to clustering and data abstraction. Detailed typical data clustering options. The problem of data transformation by vector quantization with the least error is given. A competitive training system for an artificial neural network based on a growing neural gas is described. Using the method of growing neural gas, an improved algorithm of a self-learning artificial neural network of competitive training is proposed. The criteria for completing clustering using the adaptation criterion as a stop criterion are defined. Examples of data clustering by an artificial neural network using the method of growing neural gas are given.

    Keywords: clustering, artificial neural network, computer modeling, pattern recognition, self-learning intelligent systems

  • Forecasting federal tax revenue and fees using econometric modeling

    The article considers the problem of economic forecasting of the volume of federal taxes and fees by the example of the Southern Federal District. To make a forecast, an econometric model was constructed with the introduction of dummy variables.The main objective of the study is the implementation of a short-term forecast using an econometric model. According to data from 01/01/2018 to 03/31/2020. an economic forecast of federal tax revenues was made and for the next two months.In conclusion, the proposed forecasting technique has such advantages as efficiency and simplicity.

    Keywords: taxes, fees, forecasting, federal budget revenues, budget system, multiplicative model, dummy variables

  • Sales channel performance report for sales channel hierarchical structure

    This article describes the developed tool for creating a report on the effectiveness of sales channels for the hierarchical structure of sales channels. The developed model for the report on sales channels takes into account the type of source, the criterion for the freeness of the sales channel, the source of traffic and the source of customers themselves. The ROI is estimated and customer conversion activity data is tracked. The article also describes the results of the implementation of the model and its use.

    Keywords: sales channel, meta-information, contextual advertising, call tracking, ROI, Google AdWords, Yandex.Direct

  • The geometry of the heating zone in contact wire caused by a movable electric arc

    The article is devoted to the study of the interaction violations of electric locomotives current collectors with a contact wire, accompanied by the appearance of an electric arc. In order to further develop the system of technical diagnostics of current collection disruptions, accompanied by arcing, it is necessary to study the nature and parameters of the processes that occur with these disruptions. The main part of the article is devoted to the determination of the geometric parameters of the heating zone of the contact wire material by a movable electric arc, followed by an analysis of the applicability of the obtained dependences and their normalization. The description of the research area, the essence of the problem and the main statements of the technical diagnosis of current collection disruptions is given. The nature of the distribution of heat in the cross-section of the contact wire is shown. Based on the nature of the process and plane geometry, the parameters of the heating zone of the contact wire material are obtained: the area of the heating zone and the depth of the heating zone. Limitations in the application of the obtained dependencies are given.

    Keywords: electric transport, overhead contact system, contact wire, current collection disruption, electric arc, current collection with arcing, thermal wear, softening, diagnostics

  • Development the system for analysis of real estate in typical apartment buildings based on mass valuation methods

    The paper discusses modern approaches to the mass valuation of real estate, automated systems for typical buildings assessment, and also provides the development of a method for the continuous assessment of real estate objects, which makes it possible to effectively evaluate groups of real estate objects and infrastructure. This research is aimed at studying the economic component of this process - modeling of a system for assessing the market valuation of real estate in typal development objects. The purpose of the study is to develop a system of continuous assessment (mass valuation) of real estate, taking into account the current methodological support of the process of assessing the market value of real estate, and should contribute to the improvement of the comparative approach to valuation in the framework of the practical activities of appraisers, as well as for state regulation of the real estate market.

    Keywords: diversification of management, production diversification, financial and economic purposes of a diversification, technological purposes of ensuring flexibility of production

  • Optimal management of a certain model of a dental company

    The consideration and study of the process of functioning of the offices of the company were the following objectives. Determine the quantitative dependencies of the input flow of patients and unserved requests (refusals). To conduct the sensitivity analysis. Build a basic model of a dental company as a simulation model (input model) that provides targeted variation of input parameters, and a linear programming model (output model) that processes simulation results and provides data on the degree of sensitivity of the model to changes in its parameters. Compare two simulation models of a dental company with different numbers of doctors. Determine the most effective model. Determine a combination of management variables in the optimization model that takes into account the amount of estimated lost profits due to rejection of applications, and based on this, make a conclusion about the need to hire additional employees, thereby increasing the profitability of the dental company. To achieve these goals, the following tasks were solved. A simulation model of a dental company as a Queuing system in the GPSS language was developed and studied. It is determined under which parameters the model is most effective. An analysis of the sensitivity of the model to changes in its parameters is performed. Numerical Monte Carlo methods were used to investigate this issue. We have developed a custom application in the VBA object-oriented programming language that allows you to determine for a certain period of time, starting with how many failures, you should hire an additional doctor, so that the company's profit is maximized. The practical value of the proposed model lies in its flexibility, complex nature, and consistency in the organization and technological regulation of the company's main systems and business processes. The model of a dental company has a sufficient degree of universality, as it can be used in any branch of the service sector. more complicated when you add players. The term "truel" we understand the rivalry three players. They are assigned some values of accuracy the probabilities of eliminating the opponent in one shot. At each stage of the game is chosen by the active player (the selection rule active player either randomly or by prior agreement between the players about their participation). The active player chooses an opponent to eliminate or passes the course. Developed mathematical models for different formulations of the conditions of the game (random or fixed choice of the active player). For each model are analyzed based on the probability of winning in the "truly" of accuracy, based on randomly generated program values. Comparing analytical solution and simulation, we see that they have the same answers. For large dimensions similar games analytical method requires complex calculations, so an acceptable alternative is the simulation method. Data research nahegelegenen in political and judicial practices, as well as analytical tools for the study of the theory of evolution.

    Keywords: simulation model, Queuing systems, GPSS World, linear programming model, Monte Carlo numerical methods, VBA

  • Development of a mathematical model of a vulcanization boiler

    The article is devoted to the development of a mathematical model of a vulcanization boiler, namely, the temperature control loop inside the boiler. The mathematical model of the boiler was obtained by the Rotach method in the form of a transfer function. Simulation modeling was performed in the VisSim software tool. The adequacy and stability of the model is proved and the numerical values ​​of the quality criteria of the transient process are obtained. The resulting model is intended to determine the optimal settings of the regulator of the vulcanization process control system.

    Keywords: transfer function, vulcanization boiler, transient, software, system order, vulcanization process, control, calculated transfer function, delay time, sleeve

  • Quasi-Doppler radio direction finder operability ensuring when the antenna central vibrator system fails

    Considered are the issues of automatic direction-finders efficiency ensuring at the Central vibrator ARP failure, which proposes to change the switching order of the vibrators of radio direction finder antenna system. An algorithm for changing the switching order of the antenna system vibrators is presented.

    Keywords: radio direction finder, antenna system malfunction, increase of radio direction finder reliability

  • Technical science. Building and architecture

  • Solving problems of organization of construction by linear programming method

    In this paper we consider some problems of economics and organization of construction which can be solved by linear programming method. In the first problem it is required to determine the set of construction machines for excavation of given amount of soil to minimize the cost of work execution. In the second problem the earth is transported from two pits and it is required to determine how much earth must be digged from each of the two pits to provide for the minimum cost of transportation.

    Keywords: soil excavation, sand, crushed stone, minimum cost, linear programming, two-phase simplex-method

  • Optimization sizes of steel vertical tank

    Storage of volatile and flammable liquids is carried out, as a rule, in vertical steel tanks. In total storage, they make up more than 80%. That is why research in this area is important in industry. The issue of reducing the cost of manufacturing tanks and reducing material costs during construction is extremely relevant. Based on the dependences of the optimal diameter, height and mass of the hull on the volume of the vessel, calculations were made for the existing TVS-10.000. In this paper, we considered a method for optimizing the size of a tank from the condition of minimum material consumption of the housing.The main dependencies and formulas were derived, on the basis of which the calculation was performed. When making calculations, the effect of static load was taken into account without the influence of dynamic factors. Thus, there was a decrease in material costs by about half for the cylindrical wall, cover and bottom.

    Keywords: vertical steel tank, important in industry, reducing manufacturing costs, reducing material costs, optimizing sizes, method of optimizing sizes, minimal material consumption

  • Geopolymers properties regulating methods

    Geopolymers are a promising building material that can become an alternative to Portland cement. They are distinguished by the possibility of using industrial waste, in particular metallurgical slags as well as inexpensive liquid glass. These resource-efficient binders can be used for the production of concrete products in stationary factories or workshops. The paper provides general directions for regulating the structure formation and properties of geopolymers based on metallurgical slags mixed with activators. The mechanism of geopolymer hardening based on the interaction of non-active slag components with an alkaline activator is briefly described; it is a three-stage physical and chemical process that leads to the formation of a solid stone structure. The influence of raw material properties on the final product characteristics is described.

    Keywords: geopolymer, geopolymer concrete, aluminosilicate component, alkaline activator, metallurgical slag, basicity modulus, strength

  • Development of a composite heat-resistant polymer dielectric material

    This paper presents results of development of heat-resistant dielectric composite material based on epoxy resins to create structural and electrical radio products, coating materials receiving and transmitting radio systems for the aerospace, naval and land equipment. Research results show that when adding 10 wt.h. polyethylene polyamine as a hardener, 10-30 wt.h. polymethylphenylsiloxane as a modifier to ensure homogeneity, 10-40 wt.h.ceramic hollow microspheres and 5-15 wt. h. alumina as fillers per 100 wt. h. epoxy resin can be obtained a material with low permittivity and high thermal stability at 150 °C.

    Keywords: dielectric material, polymer binder, epoxy resin, polyethylene polyamine, polymethylphenylsiloxane, hollow ceramic microspheres, heat resistance, permittivity

  • Study of the dependence of the strength of cement composites on their fractal dimension

    The article is devoted to the relationship between the strength of cement composites and the fractal dimension of their structure. In solid state physics, fractal algorithms can accurately describe and predict their properties and can be used in modeling the structure of composite building materials. Determination of the material fractal dimension according to its structure image at the macrolevel allows to understand its microstructure, and its properties as the result. Using the methods of experiment mathematical planning, the study was carried out and the relationship between the strength of the cement composite and its fractal dimension was established. It has been found out that the lower the fractal dimension, the higher the strength of cement composites. However, there is an area on the function graph that shows the increase in strength at sufficiently large values of the fractal dimension. Presumably, this is due to a change in the parameters of material differential porosity. For example, such as the average pore size index, the coefficient of pores uniformity in size, and the coefficient of microporosity. Such circumstance arouses interest and conditions for further research.

    Keywords: fractal dimension, microstructure, strength, cement composite, composite building material, experiment planning, three-component system, regression equation, regression coefficient

  • The study of room's air exchange scheme's influence on exhaust ventilation hood's effectiveness

    The study is set to determine room's air exchange scheme's influence on exhaust ventilation appliances' effectiveness. Open-type exhausts (exhaust ventilation hoods) used in different industrial manufacturing processes are selected. In particular, a food processing working space with an adjacent meat heat-treating chamber, where ventilation hood is installed near an open doorway, is evaluated. Two options of supply air ducts' installation (air inflow in the center of a working space or, alternatively, side areas of it) are analysed. Geometrical models of heat-treating chamber, raw material loading room, ventilation hood placed over chamber's door, and supply air duct with air-distributing appliances are constructed. The article presents results of numerical simulation for the model of heat-treating chamber's exhaust ventilation system operation. It is established that, in case of a supply ducts' installation in a side areas of a room, an air exchange could be lowered by 28% under condition of a removal of a gas-air mixture without breaching into the room.

    Keywords: exhaust ventilation, ventilation hood, simulation, heat-treatment chamber, numerical experiment