The mathematical basics of the non-classical approach to the logical synthesis of k-valued digital structures, based on the replacement of the classic mathematical apparatus of logic synthesis (Boolean algebra) to the proposed mathematical apparatus - linear algebra are considered. The limiting properties of Boolean algebra, preventing further improve the technical ICs characteristics are discussed. One of the possible directions of overcoming these properties is the transition to a multi-valued logic. A new in a logical synthesis concept of linear synthesis of digital structures is proposed. A strong definition of linear algebra and its basic properties are shown. The logic synthesis process of two valued and multi-valued digital structures in linear algebra, including the formation of bases of a linear space, the original representation of the implemented logical function, obtaining decomposition of logic function according to the system of basis vectors are considered.
Keywords: multi-valued logic, Boolean algebra, linear algebra, linear logic synthesis, linear digital structures, bases of the linear space, decomposition of logic functions, logical variable, logical synthesis, digital logical elements
The analytical method for calculation of induction and inductive properties of conducting cylinder with azimuth density of rotational current has been proposed. The method permits: to calculate radial distributions of azimuth component for strength vector of rotational electric field, densities of whirling currents, specific heat rating, being emitted at the local area of conductor; to determine the dependence of average electro moving force (EMF) in the ring, inductive current and integral ohmic resistor from equivalent cavity’s radius of cylinder; on the base of energy considerations to calculate the inductance, being introduced by conducting cylinder. This calculation is executed for investigated electromagnetic fields, where the finite phase shift between the current and the flux exists.
Estimations, executed for real conductors and semiconductors, point out to that the great values of inductance can be achieved at the low frequencies for materials with a small specific resistance. The small values of inductance can be achieved at the very high frequency (VHF) and extremely high frequency (EHF) for materials with a large specific resistance.
Keywords: introduced inductance, induction, rotational electric field, alternating current, magnetic field flux
A method of expanding the bandwidth and improve the performance of the differential voltage divider – attenuator (AT), which have parasitic capacitance on the outputs C01, C02. Wide range of transmission of the AT provided by introducing a compensation circuit C01, C02, which is achieving data quality indicators. Simulation results of desired are shown.
Keywords: a resistive voltage divider, differential attenuator, the parasitic сapacitance load, speed, upper frequency limit, analog-to-digital converters.
This paper present method of speed increasing differential and no differential driver (output stage transistor logic, emitter and source followers, the circuit of feedback amplifiers, etc.). Сonsiders conditions of correcting circuits design, which compensates the effect of the parasitic capacitance to its range of operating frequencies and the settling time of the transition process.
Keywords: drivers, emitter and source followers, operational amplifier, correcting circuit, performance, upper frequency limit, rise time transient, stability.
Measurement results of basic characteristics of electronic module based on two specialized analog integrated circuits depending on different square area silicon detectors using source of 239Pu alpha particles is given. Processing of current pulses typically consists to convert them into a voltage by charge sensitive amplifiers and reduce noise by bandpass filters. Earlier for work with avalanche photodiode we have developed, constructed and tested two electronic modules "CRP-MDL-1" and "CRP-MDL-2". During the measurements was investigated spectrometric channel response on exposure to ionizing radiation from a source of alpha particles 239Pu and test input signals, thus we determined basic technical characteristics including energy resolution and noise characteristics. As a result, research found, that the output signal has the following timings: rise time - 1 us (levels of 0.1-0.9), peak time - 1.4 us, fall time - 1.8 us pulse width - 3.5 us. The conversion factor of module working with silicon detector (area of 1000 mm2 and a capacity 500 pF) consists about 10.6 mV / fC, or 0.47 V / MeV. Integral nonlinearity of spectrometer path is not worse 0.4% in the range from about 0.1 to 3.2 V. The energy resolution was 89.1 keV line of 5157 keV. The experimental studies revealed that using an external low-noise transistors developed module can be used in the construction of standard radiometric paths. It is appropriate to use the developed design-circuit solutions for implementing 4-channel chip for multi-channel radiometric and spectrometric systems.
Keywords: silicon detector, charge sensitive amplifier, spectrometer, radiometric system, ionizing radiation
Сollector mm-wave load circuit of differential stages, as well as the optimization of Q-factor are considered. Optimization of the form of microstrip line in order to increase quality factor is shown. Differential line shorted at one end, at the resonant frequency in the operating mode of the standing wave. At the shorted end of the line voltage is at minimum level, while the current at the maximum, so losses are mainly due to the series resistance of the microstrip line. On the other side of the line, the current is minimized, and the voltage - maximum, so the parasitic losses associated with shunt conductance between the differential lines. This effect use for reducing line losses and increasing the Q-factor. To this end, at the shorted end of the line is necessary to increase the line width and the gap between them, and at the other end to reduce the width and gap.
Keywords: resonant circuit, SiGe, mm-wave, BiCMOS, monolithic integrated circuit
Classical implementation of active selective amplifiers (SA) are usually associated with design sophisticated active elements (operational amplifiers) that consume relatively large power from their universality. This paper present the active SA based on an analog array chip ABMK_1_3, that have high level of radiation resistance to the flow of neutrons and accumulated dose of radiation. This SA implemented on the basis of a voltage-to-current converter with a minimum number of transistors and low consumption static current. Efficient use of current amplifier can be explained by use frequency dependent symmetric chains in a feedback loop. This property provides the independence of the pole frequency f0 = fp on the gain of the active element, as well as maximizing the quality factor.
The basic analytical expressions that establish the relationships between the SA and the characteristics of active and passive components are given. The relations that help minimize sensitivity of parameters SA to instability properties of the components are considered. Simulation results of desired SA are shown.
Keywords: selective amplifier, bandpass filter, active RC-filter, analog array chip, radiation hardness
The features of circuit engineering and results of chip computer simulation which consists of 4-channel operational amplifier (op amp) and 2-channel electrometric voltage follower, designed for pre-processing of sensors signals in high-energy physics are considered.
The characteristic properties of designed op amp are the absence of current source in the input differential stage and the use of parallel high-frequency channel for increasing of the bandwidth and slew rate.
The results of experimental research that have confirmed the low sensitivity of the parameters of designed integrated circuits created on the field programmable gate array "FGPA-1.3" without the horizontal p-n-p transistors to the influence of gamma-irradiation and electrons with energy of 4 MeV are given.
Keywords: operational amplifier, field programmable gate array, voltage follower, sensor, sensing element, radiation resistance.
Technique for measurement of inductances (L) about 1 nanohenry or less one, is discussed. Two measurements of inductance L are executed. First one is executed for stub length l0, another - for stub length, shortened into N times. Formula for calculation of unknown inductance’ error has been obtained, where determination of unknown L with error closed to meter error has been succeeded by choice of parameters. It is shown that required measurement’s error of initial stub length for N=2 and N=5 is in tens micrometers’ range. Techniques for error’s diminishing have been considered. Estimation for basic stub length of 6,6 mm and 8,3 mm for N=2 and N=5 respectively has been executed.
Keywords: inductance, least-squares procedure, meter error, stub base
The paper discusses the features of method of extension of circuit’s operating frequency range of the source and the classical emitter voltage follower (VF). The features of this method based on the effect of the mutual compensation of the parasitic impedances are considered. Problem of improving operation speed of VF with output capacitance and reducing the time of establishment of transient at pulsed input voltage are discussed.
The simulation results of VF in Cadence on model of SiGe integrated transistors are given. This shows that with capacitive load high-frequency cutoff, the time of establishment of transient and the slew rate improved to tens - hundreds of times.
The results of investigate complement of methods of improving operation speed of the classical stage with a common drain and common collector.
Keywords: operating frequency range, source follower, emitter follower, operational speed, broadband amplifier
Are considered method of reducing one of the most essential components of the voltage offset Uvo operational amplifiers (op-amp), executed on classical architecture with current mirrors, which is linked to the change current gain of base (β) bipolar transistors in conditions of temperature and radiation effects.
To solve this problem in the basic architecture of op-amp is entered special corrective multipole, which will provide low-current asymmetry in coordination of input differential stage (DS). The method is applicable to op-amp, which is inexpedient to make any adjustments to the original structure of the DS.
The analytical expressions determining basic parameters the compensation circuits Uvo, and also shows the tabular data that simplify the choice of standard functional components of precision op-amps.
Keywords: microelectronics, circuit design, a differential amplifier, operational amplifier, voltage offset, temperature drift, the effect of radiation on the zero level
Circuit features of the electronics module for avalanche photodiode signal read-out, created on a basis of the specialized analog IC, are considered. Measurement re-sults of characteristics and noise depending on signal source capacity are given.
Keywords: avalanche photo diode, readout electronic, charge sensitive amplifier, shaper, electronics module
This article addresses options for building advanced of resistive voltage dividers (attenuator), providing a reduction in a given number of once input voltage in a wide range of operating frequencies. To correct the frequency error in the AT parasitic capacitance the load is proposed modified scheme with the special frequency attenuator correction, which allows for one to two orders extend the range of working frequencies the AT and increase performance.
Results of computer modeling.
Keywords: attenuator, a resistive voltage divider, the parasitic capacitance load correction capacitor, speed, large-amplitude pulse signal, the compensation effect, the upper frequency limit, broadband, analog-to-digital interfaces
The paper shows the feasibility of using a current amplifier in the filters RF and microwave ranges. By analyzing the basic structure of the second-order level sufficient conditions for the efficient use of active elements. The examples of methodological nature and formulated conclusions of practical importance.
Keywords: RF filter, microwave filter, parametric sensitivity, current amplifiers, functional modeline setting
The paper offers a solution to the general problem of circuit synthesis for n-MOS transistor level band pass filter based on current amplifier with a limited transmission coefficient. The possibility of optimal choice of the parametric compromise. The results of modeling circuit in Cadence Virtuoso environment component-based workflow SGB25VD.
Keywords: CMOS transistor, a band pass filter, a selective amplifier, system on chip, gain, voltage-to-current