Frequency divider based on linear logic is considered. The circuit design concept is based on current mirrors, that provide low dependence from supply voltage. The circuit design of frequency divider and results of simulation on 0.25 um CMOS technology are presented. Additionally, advantages in controlling current consumption and output voltages by changing the value of the reference resistor are shown.
Keywords: frequency divider, current logic, linear algebra
The development of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy method in the field of high-frequency signals is proposed using an amplitude-phase approach to analyze the parameters of various biological sensors. Unlike the standard high-frequency analog electrochemical impedance spectroscopy systems interfaces based on quadrature demodulation, the use of peak and phase detectors allows improving the basic metrological parameters, as well as simplifying the analog interface with a wide bandwidth of the biological sensor interrogation signal. The circuit design of the phase detector, as part of the general system, is considered on the components of the technological process TSMC 0.35um SiGe. The key feature of this block is the maximum speed due to the rejection of feedbacks. A large range of output voltages and a low speed of their change allow the use of standard analog input modules for inputting phase detector signals to a computer for subsequent digital processing. The final accuracy of biological sensor signal phase detection is maintained at an acceptable level due to the introduction of additional elements in the basic circuit and the digital algorithms presented in the work. The shown variant of carrying out the correction has immunity to nonlinearities of the output characteristic of phase detection for large phase deviations of the signal of the biological sensor. The process technology used in the design is classified as economical, which makes it possible to potentially reduce the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy systems cost of production and introduction of a mass application.
Keywords: biological sensor; impedance spectroscopy; phase detector; quadrature representation of a signal, digital correction, algorithm of data processing, SiGe-technology, system on chip, microwave range, analog interface
The serial peripheral interface (SPI) based on current logic, in which due to current mirrors stable to voltage supply and operation of transistors in the active mode, increased reliability and resistance to destabilizing factors are considered. The circuit design of D-flip-flops and the results of simulation on a 0.25 μm CMOS process are given. In the developed device, current consumption adjustment is realized with an external resistor, and external load resistors allow to select the necessary amplitude of the output signal.
Keywords: current logic, SPI, serial peripheral interface, linear algebra
The mathematical basics of the non-classical approach to the logical synthesis of k-valued digital structures, based on the replacement of the classic mathematical apparatus of logic synthesis (Boolean algebra) to the proposed mathematical apparatus - linear algebra are considered. The limiting properties of Boolean algebra, preventing further improve the technical ICs characteristics are discussed. One of the possible directions of overcoming these properties is the transition to a multi-valued logic. A new in a logical synthesis concept of linear synthesis of digital structures is proposed. A strong definition of linear algebra and its basic properties are shown. The logic synthesis process of two valued and multi-valued digital structures in linear algebra, including the formation of bases of a linear space, the original representation of the implemented logical function, obtaining decomposition of logic function according to the system of basis vectors are considered.
Keywords: multi-valued logic, Boolean algebra, linear algebra, linear logic synthesis, linear digital structures, bases of the linear space, decomposition of logic functions, logical variable, logical synthesis, digital logical elements
Measurement results of basic characteristics of electronic module based on two specialized analog integrated circuits depending on different square area silicon detectors using source of 239Pu alpha particles is given. Processing of current pulses typically consists to convert them into a voltage by charge sensitive amplifiers and reduce noise by bandpass filters. Earlier for work with avalanche photodiode we have developed, constructed and tested two electronic modules "CRP-MDL-1" and "CRP-MDL-2". During the measurements was investigated spectrometric channel response on exposure to ionizing radiation from a source of alpha particles 239Pu and test input signals, thus we determined basic technical characteristics including energy resolution and noise characteristics. As a result, research found, that the output signal has the following timings: rise time - 1 us (levels of 0.1-0.9), peak time - 1.4 us, fall time - 1.8 us pulse width - 3.5 us. The conversion factor of module working with silicon detector (area of 1000 mm2 and a capacity 500 pF) consists about 10.6 mV / fC, or 0.47 V / MeV. Integral nonlinearity of spectrometer path is not worse 0.4% in the range from about 0.1 to 3.2 V. The energy resolution was 89.1 keV line of 5157 keV. The experimental studies revealed that using an external low-noise transistors developed module can be used in the construction of standard radiometric paths. It is appropriate to use the developed design-circuit solutions for implementing 4-channel chip for multi-channel radiometric and spectrometric systems.
Keywords: silicon detector, charge sensitive amplifier, spectrometer, radiometric system, ionizing radiation
Сollector mm-wave load circuit of differential stages, as well as the optimization of Q-factor are considered. Optimization of the form of microstrip line in order to increase quality factor is shown. Differential line shorted at one end, at the resonant frequency in the operating mode of the standing wave. At the shorted end of the line voltage is at minimum level, while the current at the maximum, so losses are mainly due to the series resistance of the microstrip line. On the other side of the line, the current is minimized, and the voltage - maximum, so the parasitic losses associated with shunt conductance between the differential lines. This effect use for reducing line losses and increasing the Q-factor. To this end, at the shorted end of the line is necessary to increase the line width and the gap between them, and at the other end to reduce the width and gap.
Keywords: resonant circuit, SiGe, mm-wave, BiCMOS, monolithic integrated circuit
Classical implementation of active selective amplifiers (SA) are usually associated with design sophisticated active elements (operational amplifiers) that consume relatively large power from their universality. This paper present the active SA based on an analog array chip ABMK_1_3, that have high level of radiation resistance to the flow of neutrons and accumulated dose of radiation. This SA implemented on the basis of a voltage-to-current converter with a minimum number of transistors and low consumption static current. Efficient use of current amplifier can be explained by use frequency dependent symmetric chains in a feedback loop. This property provides the independence of the pole frequency f0 = fp on the gain of the active element, as well as maximizing the quality factor.
The basic analytical expressions that establish the relationships between the SA and the characteristics of active and passive components are given. The relations that help minimize sensitivity of parameters SA to instability properties of the components are considered. Simulation results of desired SA are shown.
Keywords: selective amplifier, bandpass filter, active RC-filter, analog array chip, radiation hardness
The paper discusses the features of method of extension of circuit’s operating frequency range of the source and the classical emitter voltage follower (VF). The features of this method based on the effect of the mutual compensation of the parasitic impedances are considered. Problem of improving operation speed of VF with output capacitance and reducing the time of establishment of transient at pulsed input voltage are discussed.
The simulation results of VF in Cadence on model of SiGe integrated transistors are given. This shows that with capacitive load high-frequency cutoff, the time of establishment of transient and the slew rate improved to tens - hundreds of times.
The results of investigate complement of methods of improving operation speed of the classical stage with a common drain and common collector.
Keywords: operating frequency range, source follower, emitter follower, operational speed, broadband amplifier
The paper discusses the features of their own circuits and mutual compensation circuitry in a differential stage in CMOS transistors. It is shown that their composition can significantly increase the differential gain in symmetric cascades with a dynamic load, significantly reduce common mode gain and extend the range of operating frequencies. As an example, the evolution of the basic concept of a symmetric stage and the results of its simulation in Cadence Virtuoso.
Keywords: micro circuitry, structural synthesis, complex-function blocks, a differential stage, a CMOS transistor, system-on-chip