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  • Reviews, suggestions and discussions

  • Science & global challenges of XXI century

    The main tendencies of nano-technology, artificial intellect and robot- technology were described. Russian and Israeli science and education.

    Keywords: artificial intellect, robots, science, high education

  • Analytical review of research on the development and application of calibration models for a flow analyzer of the quality of petroleum products

    In the production of petroleum products, the study of IR absorption spectra is most often used to analyze the properties of a mixture. The priority of this method is due to the fact that the characteristics of the IR spectrum are directly related to the nature (structure and chemical composition) of the absorbing substance, and also depend on the aggregate state of the substance, temperature, pressure, etc. The unambiguity of the relationship between the molecular structure of a substance and its IR spectrum allows us to determine the composition of the mixture. For this purpose, calibration models should be built that connect the IR spectrum with the value of the quality indicators of petroleum products. The paper considers the methods of creating calibration models proposed by various authors, presented in well-known literary sources. To create calibration models in this paper, it is proposed to use the method of principal components and neural network modeling. Also, in order to increase the reliability of the automated control system for compounding motor fuels, it is proposed to use virtual analyzers (VA) of quality indicators of communication models, the quality indicator calculated from the calibration models of the flow analyzer with the corresponding technological variables of the compounding process. The output of the calibration models is also used for adjusting the VA.

    Keywords: Oil refining, IR spectrometer, quality indicators of petroleum products, flow IR quality analyzer, calibration models of the analyzer, virtual quality analyzer

  • Narrowband Internet of Things security threats and countermeasures

    IoT technologies have become an integral part of business and social life. This technology can be seen in almost every major city in Russia. Many leading countries are at relatively high levels of mass adoption of IoT technology. Many areas of the country's activities directly depend on the Internet of Things: “smart home”, “smart city”, digital agriculture, industrial automation, etc. It should be borne in mind that the diversified use of technologies entails a special interest of attackers and an increase in security threats. In this regard, specialists have a question of ensuring security. This article discusses the characteristics of IoT devices, the main security threats to narrowband IoT, and recommendations for countermeasures.

    Keywords: IoT, NB-IoT, security, security threats, Cybercrime, Computer security

  • Experimental equipment and methods for determining the cohesive strength of powder coatings

    The article describes the design of an experimental equipment (sample) for determining the cohesive strength of powder coatings in inactive and aggressive environments. A method for determining the mechanical characteristics of samples with coatings is presented, as well as data from the results of testing the cohesive strength of coatings based on nickel, PN60Y40, PN40Y60, iron-aluminum, coatings of self-fluxing alloys based on nickel PGSR-2, PGSR-3, PGSR-4.

    Keywords: experimental equipment, cohesive strength, gas-thermal powder coatings, physical and mechanical properties, plasma spraying

  • Background internal friction at the grain boundaries of general type

    The results of the development of asymptotic expressions for the calculation of the background of internal friction at the boundaries of the General type for the limiting cases of frequency dependence are presented. Mathematical expressions are obtained on the basis of consideration of models of the border containing periodically located steps of alternating signs and the intercrystalline border of the general type consisting of parallel plane segments of the set width separated by alternating steps of identical height and cylindrical pores.

    Keywords: model, boundary, internal friction background, relaxation, temperature-frequency dependence, slip rate

  • Models of formation of structural defects at grain boundaries in metals

    The results of the analysis of various models of structural defects formed at grain boundaries in metals are presented. It is shown that the resulting boundary defects should be taken into account when determining the tensile stresses on the lines of their junction. The development of ideas about the structure of defects contributes to a better understanding of the mechanism of their occurrence in crystals and a better definition of changing chemical and physical properties at the atomic level.

    Keywords: defects, grain boundary dislocations, facets, microplasticity, plastic deformation, boundary geometry

  • Phonon properties of hydrogenated carbon nanofilms

    In this work, the phonon format of graphane nanoribbons is calculated in the Hamiltonian formulaism. The geometric model is presented in the form of a graphene plane with hydrogen atoms attached to it. The unit cell of graphane contains two carbon atoms from solid graphene and two carbon atoms. The curvature of the graphene plane as a result of attachment to hydrogen atoms and hybridization of the outer electron orbitals of carbon atoms from sp2 to sp3, as well as the interaction between hydrogen atoms, are not taken into account. Analysis of the obtained phonon spectra shows that, for any type and width of graphane nanoribbons, there is a gap between acoustic and optical vibrational modes, in contrast to graphene, which can serve as an indicator for a given structure. Also, for the material under study, the values ​​of the speed of sound and the Debye temperature were calculated.

    Keywords: graphene, graphane, nanoribbon, unit cell, vibrational spectrum, dispersion equation

  • Technical science. Informatics, computer facilities and management

  • Investigation of the influence of the design features of the heat sink on the cooling efficiency of the processor

    The article studies the dependence of the temperature of a heat-loaded element of microelectronics on the parameters of the shape of the heat-removing body. Numerical modeling of the study of the efficiency of the heat-removing surface in terms of reducing the source temperature was carried out in the Ansys Fluent CAD system. The advantage of the heat sink design described in the work is considered to be a fairly high intensity of heat removal from the thermally active region and a small weight, which is provided by the simplicity of the heat sink system and the increased heat transfer rate, which makes it economically advantageous to calculate the use of material and time costs for the manufacture of the product. The increased temperature of electronic equipment elements significantly affects the reliability of their operation. In this paper, the task is to ensure the normal temperature regime of the housing of a heat-loaded microelectronics element using a passive cooling system of a specially designed shape.

    Keywords: heat sink, efficiency of the heat-removing structure, thermal resistance, temperature regime, heat transfer, thermal resistance, heat dissipation, heat-loaded element

  • Algorithms for the synthesis of thermistor rheostats while taking into account temperature constraints

    The use of high-power thermistors as part of the control gear facilitates a smooth start-up of powerful motors with simultaneous temperature control. When calculating the starting processes, there are a number of limitations on which the nature of starting electric motors with the use of thermistor rheostats depends. The calculated relations describing the mathematical model of the influence of the temperature of overheating of semiconductor thermistors on the process of starting motors with a start-up rheostat are presented in the form of graphic dependences. As a result of modeling the layout of thermistor rheostats, it was determined that it is necessary to pay special attention to the material heating temperature.

    Keywords: semiconductor thermistor, starting rheostat, boundary conditions, heating, specific heat, induction motor, starting current, overheating temperature

  • Application of mathematical model of logistic regression for malignant skin lesions recognition on digital skin images

    The aim of this study was to analyze the possibility of using a mathematical model of logistic regression for the recognition of malignant neoplasms on digital images of the skin. The study used a database containing 6594 digital skin images. At the first stage of the study, digital skin images were segmented to isolate the object under study, in which morphometric and color characteristics corresponding to the parameters of the classical ABCD system were determined. At the second stage, the characteristics were used in the classification into malignant and benign neoplasms using logistic regression. When classifying images, the highest value of the accuracy indicator (67.9 [66.9; 68.8]%) was obtained during classification using logistic regression, built on the basis of the reverse Wald stepwise method. Thus, the logistic regression built on the basis of the reverse stepwise Wald method can be applied in the classification of malignant neoplasms on digital images of the skin, but further research and determination of the optimal parameters are required.

    Keywords: mathematical model, digital skin images, logistic regression, image classification, skin cancer

  • Improved gaussian filter in the canny algorithm for x-ray images plant

    The Canny Edge Detection algorithm for processing X-ray images has been developed. The results of the computational experiments have shown that the adaptive Gaussian filter improves the anti-noise ability and displays the location of the edges more accurately.

    Keywords: detection of Canny edges, Gaussian filter, analysis of medical radiographic images, visualization of noise absorption

  • Analysis of the state of innovative development of the North Caucasus Federal District in the knowledge economy

    Research into the state of development of an innovative economy enhances the role of knowledge in terms of economic growth. The efficiency of the economic activity of the subjects of the North Caucasus Federal District, first of all, is characterized by the indicators of innovative activity, which, in our opinion, are a fairly universal and informative criterion that objectively determines the overall state of the economic system.

    Keywords: knowledge economy, regional economy, innovation economy, innovation activity, socio-economic development, institutional infrastructure.

  • Neural network control system for compaction of road materials of pavers

    The problem of creating a neural network system of automatic control (ACS) of the compaction process for asphalt pavers (AP) is considered. This task is aimed at improving the performance of the AP and the quality of road surfaces of highways. The model of inverse neurocontrol is implemented. When training an artificial neural network (ANN), an exit error of the control object was used. Input information signals of the neural network ACS: the speed of the paver; type of asphalt concrete mixture; layer thickness; force in the tamper pusher; acceleration of the vibrating plate. The is presented results of a computational experiment in the MATLAB/Simulink program, which showed good convergence with experimental data from field tests of pavers.

    Keywords: automatic compaction control, non-destructive technologies, artificial neural networks, road construction, pavers

  • The concept of building risk-oriented models for managing fire hazardous events in socio-economic systems. Part 1

    The article proposes a new concept for building risk-oriented models for managing fire hazardous events. On the basis of "Markov processes" allowing to interpret the control process (algorithmically, algebraically, matrix and on graphs), the procedure for conducting frequency analysis is shown as an implementation of one of the stages of the proposed concept. The results of the study can be used as decision support when ranking (or differentiating) objects of protection with different levels of fire safety by risk category.

    Keywords: risk-based models, object of protection, management, fire hazardous event, socio-economic system, Markov processes, concept

  • Increasing the level of automation of data collection processes on identified events and incidents of information security

    The relevance of the study is due to the need to increase the level of automation of the data collection process when using the services of information security centers (security operation centers) and information security incident management systems (SIEM systems). The article presents a comparison of the most popular SIEM systems, as well as the possibilities of their connection to various data sources on identified events and incidents of information security. This article is aimed at identifying a method (or method) for collecting data on information security events and incidents using console I/O information interaction interfaces in automatic mode. The requirements for the process of automatic data collection on identified events and incidents of information security are defined. The possibilities of the available mathematical apparatus allowing to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed solution are revealed. An algorithm is presented that allows to implement the proposed solution to the software implementation. The materials of the article are of practical value for specialists and developers working in the field of information security, as well as theoretical value for researchers carrying out their research both in the field of information security and in the field of information technology in general.

    Keywords: database, data collection, information security event, information security incident, information security, information security center, SIEM system, automated control system, automation, database interface

  • New possibilities of using digital tools in the management of forces and means of operational rescue units at the facilities and territories of the socio-economic infrastructure

    The work is devoted to the application of modern information technologies in the socio-economic systems of control of forces and means of operational rescue units. Using the Google Earth interface with integrated data from the Mapinfo program, it is possible to track and coordinate the forces and means of rescue units to the scene in real time.

    Keywords: information technology, Google Earth, MapInfo, visualization, fire development, forces and means, operational rescue units, interface, socio-economic system

  • Starting modes of asynchronous electric motors

    Most of the electric motors used in industry are squirrel cage induction motors. In modern industries, various types of starting and controlling asynchronous motors are used, the choice of the starting mode determines the necessary means of automating the electric drive, which directly affects the functionality and, accordingly, the final cost of the project. Direct starting is the most common way to start an electric motor. The main advantage of direct start is the maximum cheapness of the control scheme implementation. The disadvantage of direct starting is high starting currents, exceeding the rated ones by 3-8 times, which leads to increased wear of the windings and causes a reduction in the service life of the electric motor. A high initial starting torque is accompanied by a significant impulse, which places a significant load on both the mechanisms of the electric drive itself and the units of technological equipment. Star-delta starting is used to reduce inrush currents. It allows you to make a soft start with a star circuit, and during operation, a triangle is turned on, providing the maximum power of the unit. In contrast to the starting modes discussed earlier, the soft starter stabilizes the starting characteristics, providing a gradual increase in power and stable operation of the motor, which allows to extend the service life of the electric motor and technological equipment. The use of frequency converters allows you to optimize production, reduce energy consumption, and increase the service life of equipment. The inverter also protects the electric motor in the event of a short circuit, deviations from the nominal mains voltage and controls the operating temperature of the electric motor, preventing it from overheating. Having considered the features, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of starting modes of asynchronous electric motors, it is possible to determine what equipment is needed to implement a specific task of an automated electric drive.

    Keywords: automated electric drive, asynchronous electric motor, starting mode, soft starter, frequency converter, automatic control

  • Technical science. Building and architecture

  • Approaches to the modernization of the architectural and planning structure of obstetric institutions

    The aim of the study is the formation of promising models for the modernization of perinatal centers for individual large cities in the South of Russia in terms of urban planning, functional planning and spatial compositional characteristics. The traditional "obstetric model" was revised and proposed: a theoretical "autonomous model of the internal maternity space", a theoretical architectural and design model of the therapeutic environment of a maternity hospital, as well as a theoretical adapted model of a perinatal center for conditions of a pandemic and social distancing. promising conceptual and theoretical models of the formation and modernization of perinatal centers are proposed, incl. in the face of a pandemic and a new social distance; principles and guidelines have been developed for the design of institutions of modern perinatal centers in cities in the south of Russia in the context of new construction and modernization.

    Keywords: maternity hospital, perinatal center, therapeutic environment, adaptation, modernization

  • Managing the life cycle of a construction investment project taking into account the importance of environmental factors

    This article considers the assessment of the life cycle costs of investment and construction projects, taking into account the costs aimed at reducing the level of pollution into the environment. Financial calculation tools used to analyze investment decisions and calculate the cost of the life cycle of an object (LCC life cycle costs, also life cycle costs) are closely related methods of evaluating investments, including equipment, installation, construction work and various infrastructure investments necessary to maintain and develop the construction sector in the country's economy. For environmental management, this analysis allows the construction company to assess the financial benefits of alternative strategies or compare such strategies with the current state of affairs. The calculation of investments in terms of costs, cost savings and the potential to reduce the risk of environmental responsibility is the basis on which construction organizations should base their long-term strategies. The article is aimed at highlighting the issues of rational calculation of investment decisions in construction to maintain a favorable environmental situation in the territory where the construction production will be located.

    Keywords: environmental safety, environmental monitoring, project management, ecology in construction, dust suppression, life cycle costs, dust collection systems, investments in construction

  • Club "Planet" as a unique building in Rostov-on-Don

    Club architecture of the XX century has a significant role in the history of architecture development both in Rostov-on-Don and in Russia as a whole. This is due to the presence of a number of tasks, which clubs were solved in the formation of Soviet society. The change of socio-economic formation, the nihilism connected with the oblivion of some tendencies in the Soviet architecture as something alien, exposed the problem of the study of architectural form - the clubs of 1960-1980. The study, which previously did not pay due attention. As a consequence, the formed "gap" in the architectural history of the unique form of clubs, the lack of emphasis on the need for their study and conservation can lead to an irretrievable loss of structures which have compositional and artistic value. One of such objects is a club of tourists and climbers "Planet", located in the park named after N. Ostrovsky in Rostov. N. Ostrovsky Park in Rostov-on-Don. The relevance of the study of its architecture for history and local history prompted the writing of this article. The peculiarities of the club are discussed, the analysis of urban planning and volume composition of the building is carried out, it reveals the uniqueness of the building. Determined the architectural and artistic features of the building on the basis of field research and the study of preserved historical and graphic materials. The value of the object (wall of basalt stone), as a structure reflecting the main directions of the club of tourism and mountaineering is revealed, its current state is recorded.

    Keywords: Planet Club architecture, mountaineering and tourism, basalt rock, reconstruction, N. Ostrovsky Park, feature

  • Analysis of corrugated metal sheet roofing on impact loads and energy levels for building constructions

    The use of corrugated metal sheet roofing is on large scale in rural as well as urban regions of India. Most of the market consumed by the corrugated metal sheet roofing is residential building constructions. As concerned with the safety and the reliability of the corrugated metal against all the impact loads and energy level, the material needs to be tested under certain energy levels. So as to attain the safety parameters against all set of conditions. It is high time to analyse the corrugated metal sheet roofing on impact load and energy levels for building material, for sustainable and material selection.

    Keywords: GL, failure theory, energy absorption, strain energy, principal stress theory, maximum shear stress theory, maximum deformation theory, shock stress, corrugated board, metal sheet

  • Comparison of methods of reinforcement with external reinforcement of composite materials

    The use of composite materials for reinforcing reinforced concrete structures is very popular abroad, and in recent years they have gradually conquered the Russian building materials market. Insufficiently complete scope of research activities does not allow the full use of composite materials in the field of reinforcing reinforced concrete structures. In addition, there is no single product range in which composite materials from different manufacturers have the same properties. Given the difficult political situation in Russia, a number of composites manufacturing companies have stopped supplying their materials to the country. In this regard, there is a need to research new manufacturers and their reinforcement materials. Given the great responsibility placed on structural reinforcement projects, the behavior and properties of the reinforcement materials must be studied. This paper provides a comparison of materials and techniques for performing work to strengthen 2 different firms, the reliability and efficiency of one of them, BASF, was tested as a result of research and development, but this firm stopped working in Russia, another firm, Hydrozo - is the most common, but little studied. Also, the work presents all the positive and negative properties of the technologies for performing work, an analysis is made regarding the prospects for the use of reinforcement materials.

    Keywords: concrete, reinforced concrete, reinforcement, carbon fiber reinforced plastic, composite material, reinforcement, carbon fiber