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  • Experimental qualification for compressive properties of unidirectional carbon-fiber reinforced composite

    Most important information about an environmental resistance (moisture, cyclic change of the temperature, ultraviolet radiation) of high strength composite material can be received at the compressive mechanical testing. The reinforcing fibers that are oriented along the specimens axis (or are oriented on the small angles relative to this axis) carry the main tencile loading. Conversely, at the compression the elastic and strength properties of the material, basically depend on the matrix properties. The specimens for mechanical testing are usually manufactured as relatively thin rectangular plates by winding or laying-up that corresponds to the ready composite parts. In order to eliminate buckling of the specimen at compressive test, its working length must be very shortened. So, this working part is unavalable for the extensometer instalaltion, and compressive strain of the specimen can be determined by the stroke of crosshead only. This stroke is a sum of very small contraction of the specimen and crosshead displacement due to elastic deformation of the testing machine. We determined the dependence of elastic deformation of the testing machine at the preliminary testing to exclude this deformation from the testing data. We present the features of the compressive testings and their numerical processing at the study of high strength GFRPs, and also the character of composite fracture studied by means of the scanning electron microscopy.

    Keywords: Polymeric composite materials, multilayered composites, environmental resistance, experimental technique, compressive testing, scanning electron microscopy

  • Secure modification of LSB matching steganography method

    The modification of the most common steganography method for various container is presented. This modification allows to increase the resistance of steganography to the statistical analisys. A comparative analysis of the effect of the traditional LSB matching method and the proposed modification to the frequency histogram of sample values ​​in the container is presented.

    Keywords: steganography, steganalysis, information security, embedded data transfer

  • Local Atomic and Electronic Structure of the Fe dopants in AlN:Fe Nanorods

    Fe-doped AlN nanorods were studied by means of x-ray absorption spectroscopy above the Fe K- and L2,3- edges. Theoretical simulations of the x-ray absorption spectra show that Fe atoms mainly substitute Al. A minor fraction of Fe interstitials or Fe-Al-N ternary alloy can be identified as well. Bader’s AIM analysis predicts that neutral substitutional FeAl defect is in 2+ charge state, though Al in pure AlN is in 3+ charge state.  Fe L2,3 absorption spectra and photoluminescence data indicate the coexistence of Fe2+/Fe3+ in AlN:Fe nanorods so different charge states of substitutional FeAl should co-exist.

    Keywords: diversification of management, production diversification, financial and economic purposes of a diversification, technological purposes of ensuring flexibility of production

  • Long-term monitoring of human respiratory activity

    This article reviews systems of respiratory activity registration in relation to sports medicine. Attention is devoted to the use of miniature accelerometers that record the movement of the chest, as the optimal method for the diagnosis of the respiratory parameters. Other methods are based on piezo-resistive sensors, pressure and airflow sensors, and airways resistance sensors. The authors' developed device based on three-axis accelerometer is proposed. It recognizes episodes of apnea with sufficient accuracy for long-term monitoring. The algorithm of the accelerometer data processing is described. In order to minimize noise impact on the useful signal it is necessary to transform the three-dimensional cloud of accelerometer data into a flat sector. Then the relation of gravity vector deviation angle and the nominal position in time is determined. This presented device due to its ability to transmit data via Bluetooth technology, after appropriate software development for mobile phone and the receiving terminal of medical professional, will be able to organize a simple ergonomic long-term remote monitoring of respiratory activity.

    Keywords: systems of respiratory activity registration, long-term remote monitoring, three-axis accelerometer

  • UV photodetector based on nanorods and zinc oxide films

    With the use of pulsed laser deposition and carbothermal synthesis а photosensitive structure on the basis of the Schottky barrier Au/ZnO(nanorods)/ZnO(film)/ZnO(nanorods)/Au was obtained. The parameters of the carbothermal method of synthesis of nanorods ZnO were optimized. Under directly applied bias of 7V current sensitivity of luminous flux for this photodetector is observed in the UV and visible regions of the spectrum, and is 0.14 A/W - for 325 nm and 0.18 A/W - to 405 nm, which means that this structure has the ability of potential applications in various fields for the control of UV radiation (for example, for the monitoring of solar UV radiation, control of UV radiation in air and disinfecting water devices).

    Keywords: ZnO nanorods, Schottky barrier, photodetector, photosensitivity

  • Catalyst-free thermal synthesis of ZNO nanocrystals from zinc vapor by low temperature

    ZnO nanorod arrays have been synthesized on silicon wafers by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique with different  temperature modes, without metal catalyst.  With this method   vertically aligned ZnO nanostructures  were grown at the quite low temperatures.  Modification of the method allowed to place silicon substrates in areas with different  ratios of concentrations of the molecules in the vapor phase. Photoluminescence spectroscopy and electron microscopy studies have shown that morphologies and optical properties of nanorods depends on different ratios of concentrations of the molecules in the vapor phase.

    Keywords: ZnO nanorods,chemical vapor deposition (CVD), photoluminescence

  • Pulsed laser deposition of ZnO nanostructures

    The arrays of ZnO nanorods were obtained on the sapphire substrates by means of pulsed laser deposition under the high pressure of argon. The conditions of synthesis were optimized, and their influence on the morphology of  ZnO nanostructures were revealed. It is shown that the concentration of oxygen vacancies in ZnO nanorods can be changed by regulation of the synthesis temperature from 850 to 915 °. This process can be controlled by the ratio of intensities of the photoluminescence emission in the visible and ultraviolet regions. So, it allows to create nanostructures for UV photodetectors or chemosensors depending on the temperature choice.

    Keywords: ZnO nanorods, laser deposition, PLD, photoluminescence

  • Оптимизация режима формования полимерных композитных конструкций на основе метода Парето

    Одним из важнейших факторов, исключающих возникновение дефектов типа пор, расслоений, участков с неполной полимеризацией связующего в формуемой высоконагруженной полимерной композитной конструкции, является управляемость процесса во всем объеме композита. Для обеспечения однородности процесса полимеризации связующего предложен метод многокритериальной оптимизации процесса на основе математической модели, связывающей процессы распространения тепла и кинетики полимеризации. Система связанных уравнений процесса, учитывающая экзотермическое тепло, выделяемое при полимеризации термореактивного связующего, изменение теплоемкости и теплопроводности композита при фазовых переходах от жидкого к гелеобразному и, далее, к твердому состоянию, точную геометрию технологической системы, включая прессформу, а также интенсивность тепловыделения независимо управляемых нагревателей, реализована в виде конечноэлементной модели. Предложенный метод синтеза закона оптимального управления нагревателями, использующий метод множеств Парето, проиллюстрирован на примере полимеризации разностенной композитной конструкции, формуемой из стеклопластика.

    Keywords: Композиционные материалы; Процесс полимеризации; Оптимальное управление; Кинетические уравнения; Уравнения в частных производных в задачах управления и оптимизации, Конечно-элементное моделирование, Фронт Парето

  • Technique of microinjection in axons of nerve cells, surrounded by dense glial sheath, using ultrasound vibration of microcapillary

    Intracellular microinjection - a method of direct introduction of cellular organelles and solutions of substances into living cells. The technique of microinjection into nerve cells by puncturing their processes - axons , which are often surrounded by a dense glial sheath, are described. To puncture the sheath a special injector transmitting microvibrations of ultrasonic frequency on the injection capillary was designed. The results of using the proposed microinjection technique for introducing fluorescent marker in large axons of model object - crayfish ventral nerve cord, to visualize the morphology of axons, were shown.

    Keywords: intracellular microinjection, neuron, axon, glial sheath, ultrasound vibration, piezoelectric transducer

  • The algorithm of Image reconstruction based on analysis of local binary patterns

    The paper presents a method of detecting distortions in the archival photo documents by texture analysis based on local binary patternss. The proposed approach consists of the following stages: pre-treatment and detection of scratches. Pre-treatment is used to reduce the effects of noise and small defects in the image. To recognize the class of defects using a support vector machine. The effectiveness of the new approach on several examples in the detection of defects.

    Keywords: digital image processing, detection of defects, archival photographs, local binary patterns

  • Methods for the synthesis of LaMnO3 (Review)

    "This review covers various methods of synthesis LaMnO3 ferroics. The general analysis of the solid-phase synthesis reactions methods and wet methods (sol-gel, sorption, co-precipitation) are carred out. The original results of LaMnO3 syntheses from various precursors by means of the in situ method are showned. The advantages and disadvantages of different methods of synthesis are determined. The analysis of synthesis LaMnO3 ferroics published data is shown:
    - the structure formation of LaMnO3 in perovskite-type phases occurs at different temperatures, depending on precursors states;
    - LaMnO3 perovskite phases differ in symmetry and unit cells parameters at room temperature, depending on the preparation conditions;
    - the highest synthesis temperature of LaMnO3 are typical for solid phase reactions method (950-1050 ° C), the lowest - for wet synthesis methods (500-700 ° C);
     - the synthesis conditions effect the stoichiometry of LaMnO3 for oxygen content.
    Our studies of structure formation processes of LaMnO3 by in situ method are allowed to define the role of precursors states at synthesis of solid phase reactions methods, adsorption, co-precipitation and sol-gel mixtures.
    It is determined that in samples prepared by wet chemical methods, the formation processes of  LaMnO3 perovskite phases occur at lower temperatures than by solid phase reaction (sol-gel precursor - 500 <T <600 ° C; precursors obtained by coprecipitation and sorption methods - at 600 <T <700 ° C and 700 <T <800 ° C, respectively).  

    Keywords: ferroics, LaMnO3, X-ray diffraction, solid-phase synthesis, sol-gel synthesis, sorption, co-precipitation

  • The concept of organization of processing of the information in the systems of diagnostics and detection

     In the article there are considered the problems arising in the building of systems of diagnostics and recognition, provides methods to detect deviations in functioning of the various objects.

    Keywords: Diagnostics, еmpirical mode decomposition, extreme filtering, time-frequency distributions

  • Selective growth of ZnO nanorods arrays by hydrothermal method on silicon

    In the present work we have carried out studies of the processes of growth of zinc oxide nanorods by hydrothermal method on silicon substrates. As sublayer catalyst used growth caused by laser deposition of zinc oxide, various thicknesses. Studied selective growth of nanorods on the microstructure of thin-film sub-layers of zinc oxide obtained by laser deposition. The optimal conditions for the synthesis of: the concentration of Zn (NO3) 2 - 0.4 mol / l, hexamethylenetetramine - 0.4 mol / l, the concentration of NH3 · H2O - 0,01 mol / L -0.01, process time 4:00, the process temperature is 80 ° C. Sublayer thickness of zinc oxide, as shown by experiment, the growth of the rods has no noticeable effect. Oriented arrays of nanorods were obtained up to 500 nm and a diameter of 60-150 nm.
    Keywords: zinc oxide nanorods and micro-oriented arrays of nanorods, hydrothermal synthesis method, selective growth, thin film underlayer.