The aim of the work was to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of a typical 2-room apartment and find the optimal solution for redevelopment. As an example, we selected a typical planning solution from the developer of a two-room apartment in a multi-storey residential building. The article considers a variant of apartment remodeling in order to improve the housing characteristics of the premises. It is concluded that the typical rational solution for reconstruction is the reorganization of auxiliary premises in favor of residential premises, changing their configurations. The logic of applying the principles of free planning is reduced to creating conditions for comfortable spatial interaction of functional zones.
Keywords: Planning solution, apartment, functional areas, ergonomics, remodeling, living area, wet area, interior, visualization, furniture arrangement, redevelopment, area, insolation, installation, dismantling, building codes
The development of information technology has a significant impact on many areas of human activity, including the construction industry. The introduction of modern software and information devices into production processes at the stages of design and construction of buildings can lead not only to an increase in the quality of construction and installation works, a reduction in construction time, but also to a reduction in the consumption of material resources and a decrease in the generation of construction and demolition waste at the construction site. The article provides statistical data on the formation of construction waste in recent years, as well as identifies the possibilities of increasing the level of resource saving in construction through the use of modern information technologies.
Keywords: resource conservation, waste, construction, technology, informatization, demolition, dismantling
BIM technologies are mandatory in a number of foreign countries, therefore the question of regulatory regulation of BIM technologies in Russia arises. A strong impetus for the development of information technologies is given by the Ministry of Construction and the Government of the Russian Federation, by developing standards for information modeling in the territory of the Russian Federation. Provides normative and technical documents with a brief description of the content and requirements. Consideration is given to further development and experience of passing State examinations in the field of construction.
Keywords: building information modeling, digital model, information model, BIM-technologies, design, project, regulation, software, expertise, construction, regulatory and technical documents
Technologies of carrying out restoration work on the newly identified object of cultural heritage are given. The types and methods of carrying out repair and restoration work in the conditions of urban development are considered. Recommendations for the most efficient use of material resources are given. The algorithm for carrying out repair and restoration work is being analyzed.
Keywords: work technology, repair, restoration work, cultural heritage object, building structures, buildings and structures
The article discusses the possibility of using new generation lightweight materials in construction. The author analyzed the distinctive features of membrane structures, revealed the advantages and disadvantages of the ETFE film. Based on the analysis, it was concluded that these materials and technologies are an easy and promising alternative to traditional ones.
Keywords: innovative facade systems, textile architecture, membrane structures, ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene copolymer film, energy efficiency
The authors ' analysis of scientific publications of domestic and foreign specialists revealed the main goals and directions of further research and ways to ensure them. A review of the scientific literature on the technologies of energy-efficient facade systems in various climatic zones, including in extreme construction conditions, was also made. The characteristic features of modern facade systems are revealed, the advantages and disadvantages of the applied structures and materials are determined. The authors conclude that the choice of a particular type of facade system is inextricably linked with the issues of economic feasibility of the object under construction and the technical, architectural and aesthetic requirements imposed on it. Classifications of plaster and translucent facade systems that provide a high level of energy efficiency of modern construction systems have been developed. The technologies of energy-efficient transforming and adaptive facade systems are consistently and comprehensively disclosed, and the positive dynamics of their development is revealed. Attention is focused on the fact that it is the external enclosing structures that act as an intermediate link between the room and the external environment, and therefore it is necessary to apply such structural solutions of facade systems that could optimize the temperature and humidity regime inside the building in accordance with changes in environmental conditions. The relevance of the monograph, the goals and objectives of the study are noted. The main approaches to ensuring energy efficiency and resource saving of building systems at various stages of their functioning are highlighted. Improving the energy efficiency of built-up areas and residential areas. The relevance of the reviewed monograph is associated with global changes in the information and technological potential of construction science, the improvement of technologies for the construction of new and reconstruction of existing construction systems and structures that meet modern requirements of energy efficiency as the basis of economic feasibility in the subsequent operation of buildings and structures. The problems of energy efficiency of buildings and their solutions at all stages of the life cycle have always been global in nature, inextricably linked with the growing needs of society in terms of improving the quality of the organization of internal space, ensuring a comfortable existence and human activity. The authors ' analysis of scientific publications of domestic and foreign specialists revealed the main goals and directions of further research and ways to ensure them. A review of the scientific literature on the technologies of energy-efficient facade systems in various climatic zones, including in extreme construction conditions, was also made. The characteristic features of modern facade systems are revealed, the advantages and disadvantages of the applied structures and materials are determined. The authors conclude that the choice of a particular type of facade system is inextricably linked with the issues of economic feasibility of the object under construction and the technical, architectural and aesthetic requirements imposed on it. Classifications of plaster and translucent facade systems that provide a high level of energy efficiency of modern construction systems have been developed. The technologies of energy-efficient transforming and adaptive facade systems are consistently and comprehensively disclosed, and the positive dynamics of their development is revealed. Attention is focused on the fact that it is the external enclosing structures that act as an intermediate link between the room and the external environment, and therefore it is necessary to apply such structural solutions of facade systems that could optimize the temperature and humidity regime inside the building in accordance with changes in environmental conditions. The structure, content and scope of the monograph are given.
Keywords: relevance, research, purpose and objectives, review, analysis, presentation style, resource-saving technologies, energy urban planning efficiency, energy security, energy efficiency of the territorial space
As the object of research, the angular joints of glued wooden structures used for the construction of external enclosing structures in low-rise housing construction, made in factory conditions with modern equipment, were selected. As part of the work, the available literature on this topic was analyzed. The analysis of the variability of the use of modern corner joints of external walls for low-rise construction, made of glued beams, in the design and construction, taking into account the development of technical capabilities in modern industries. Describes the old and new device technology, corner joints, indicating the advantages and disadvantages of such compounds, describes the technical characteristics of the used elements. Conclusions are drawn, as well as recommendations for the further use of these materials in design and construction.
Keywords: glued wood, structural features of corner joints, production of wooden structures
The main results of studies of the anodic behavior and chemical composition of the surface layer of the aluminum film before and after implantation of silicon ions (20 keV), conducted using the method of measuring potentiostatic polarization curves, are presented. The decrease in the anode polarization currents and the expansion of the passivation region depending on the dose of the introduced ions, due to the formation of oxide compounds with the implanted silicon impurity, are shown.
Keywords: ion implantation, films, aluminum, polarization curves, potentiostat, anode behavior, auger electron spectra, electrolyte, silicon ions
The following object of research is considered: information processes in special-purpose automated systems with the application of resident type anti-virus protection mechanisms in conditions of the destructive influence of malicious software. The purpose of the study is to improve the efficiency of information processing in special-purpose automated systems in terms of mechanisms resident-type anti-virus protection and the destructive impact of malicious software. The research methods include methods of the theoretical foundations of information security, the methodological apparatus of system analysis, mathematical modeling, methods of probability theory, and mathematical statistics. In the course of the study, the following results were obtained: firstly, the assessment of information processes application in automated special-purpose systems effectiveness was substantiated; secondly, theoretical foundations and method for optimizing the time resources of special-purpose automated systems in the interests of implementing resident-type anti-virus protection mechanisms in conditions of the destructive impact of malicious software have been developed; thirdly, functional and mathematical models of mentioned above information processes have been developed; fourthly, an appropriate technique developed and a computational experiment has been carried out to assess the increase in the efficiency of information processing in special-purpose automated systems in conditions of resident-type anti-virus protection mechanisms usage and the destructive impact of malicious software. The obtained results have allowed improving the efficiency of information processing in special-purpose automated systems in terms of resident-type anti-virus protection mechanisms and destructive effect, through the optimal use of these systems time resource by antivirus mechanisms.
Keywords: special-purpose automated systems, anti-virus protection, anti-virus mechanisms, timeliness, information protection, information processing efficiency, computational experiment
The article is devoted to the possibility of applying the methods of successive approximations in the analysis of the instantaneous scheme of the traction network. The described approach allows to improve the accuracy of modeling dynamic modes of operation of traction power supply sections, and also allows to significantly improve the process of modeling diagnostics and control systems of electric rolling stock at the design stage based on a more accurate model of dynamically changing input parameters of the traction network, depending on their required level.
Keywords: traction network, instantaneous circuit, diagnostics, simulation, recruitment model
The article deals with the issue of production of electrode tapes. A mathematical model of the parameters of the electrode tape forming process is described. Mathematical calculations of the porosity, thickness and mass of the active layer are given. A conclusion is made about the composition of the impregnating rolls and the accuracy of dosing fractions. An example of calculating the molding parameters with an active CuO layer is given.
Keywords: electrode tapes, technologies, composite materials, thickness and porosity of the active layer
The paper discusses approach to voice recognition, that allows to use tools of Google Cloud Speech platform for editing source code for programs, using audioprocessing, editing distances and substitution tables. The paper discusses issues of editing source code on mobile devices and the issues, which does not allow using tools from Google Cloud Speech platform directly, like not recognizing certain keywords. The paper suggests new method, which combines substitution tables and editing distances for solving the issues. This approach can be used for editing source code for programs, using mobile devices. The paper offers a prototypr of web-application, which allows to edit source code and uses this approach and, also, allows to submit changes to Github source code hosting platform and a popular instant messenger Telegram.
Keywords: voice recognition, mobile devices, source code analysis, formal languages, editing distances
The calculation of efficiency indicators in the production of grain and leguminous crops is carried out on the example of the Irkutsk region. Given that the production of agricultural products occurs under conditions of uncertainty, the initial data for calculating these indicators are random variables, so the calculations are carried out using a probabilistic break-even analysis based on the Monte Carlo method. The break-even point, invested income, and operating profit are selected as performance indicators. Based on the given initial data of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Irkutsk Region and the Federal State Statistics Service for the Irkutsk Region, point and interval estimates were obtained during modeling. For the listed performance indicators, the models of their calculation, depending on the source data, are given. As initial data there are: the volume of production of grain and leguminous crops; expenses for a production unit; fixed costs; average price per unit of production; the size of the subsidies.
Keywords: operating profit, grain and pulses production, probabilistic break-even analysis, agricultural products, Monte Carlo method
The article considers a generalized algorithm for assessing the quality of socially significant activities (hereinafter referred to as CPAs), which provides for expert assessment and subsequent data analysis using one of the assessment scales (linguistic, point and interval). Methods are proposed that are advisable to apply at various stages of the generalized algorithm. The groups of criteria for assessing the quality of CPAs are determined: deterministic and partially deterministic. It is proposed to calculate the quality assessment of CPAs by summing the values of the calculated deterministic and partially deterministic criteria, adjusted for their weight determined by an expert. When implementing the proposed algorithms, the mathematical apparatus of fuzzy logic was used, which allows us to carry out calculations with fuzzy given input information characteristic of social objects. It is convenient to automate and apply such algorithms when the data is presented in a qualitative interpretation.
Keywords: socially significant activity, quality assessment, quality assessment algorithm, optimization, expert assessment, automation, fuzzy set, entropy approach, system analysis
This article discusses the theoretical order and practical solution of the problem of calculating the beam by the initial parameters method using the Mathcad calculation complex. The article describes in Detail and proposes the procedure for creating a universal calculation algorithm and program for any combination of vertical load. . Программа автоматизировано создает эпюры. The program automatically creates diagrams of internal force factors, displacements, rotation angles of beam sections.The article may be of interest to design engineers, specialists in calculating the dynamics and strength of structures, teachers and students of engineering Universities and the construction industry.
Keywords: method of initial parameters, beams, diagrams of internal force factors, beam movement, angles of rotation of sections
When designing digital systems, the stages of design debugging are important and laborious. Debugging is carried out on the manufactured prototype of the digital system. For debugging, in addition to the object being debugged, a set of debugging tests and the ability to organize debug modes on the system prototype are required, which allow, by analyzing intermediate variables, to localize an error in the project when an incorrect reaction of the system prototype to a debug test is detected. The advantages and disadvantages of design debugging on the hardware prototype of the entire digital system are considered, as well as the method for selecting a typical standard core. In the latter case, only prototypes of atypical interface circuits and blocks are made, which are connected to a previously manufactured and debugged standard core. The features of both approaches are analyzed. Classes of the most frequent applications of the considered methods are formulated.
Keywords: digital systems, design debugging, joint hardware and software debugging, project prototyping, debugging process components
The article considers the geological features of the Karasan landslide. The result of mathematical simulation of landslide motion in time is also presented.
Keywords: landslide, landslide slope, mathematical modeling, geomechanical modeling, finite element method, Karasan landslide, anti-landslide protection
In contrast to the classical transport problem, according to the minimum total time criterion, it is assumed that resources are processed both at the source points and at the destination points, the duration of which depends linearly on the volume of the processed batch. This takes into account both the availability of the vehicles involved and their characteristics, such as load capacity. The use of the Hungarian method is justified for the distribution of resources along the available routes. To solve the problem of distribution of available vehicles by starting points, taking into account the load capacity of vehicles, it is proposed to use the method of dynamic programming. An illustrative example and distribution of delivery means using the "Search for a solution" command in MS Excel are considered.
Keywords: transport task, minimum time criterion, processing costs, load capacity
Space grid structures are widely used for covering large-span public and industrial buildings and allow for a wide variety of structural and architectural forms. The article presents and solves the problem of finding a design solution for a space grid coating structure of minimum mass for a given steel class, element cross-section type, and loading conditions. The location of the supports is considered as a variable parameter, which leads to a different stress-strain state of the structure, and, accordingly, different cross-sections of the supporting elements.The change in the stress-strain state of the roof space structure when changing the location of the supports was studied. In total, 10 options for the arrangement of supports of a space structure with a size of 24x24 m and 7 options for a space structure with a size of 30x30 m were considered. After the load was applied, the VAT of the structure was determined numerically, the cross-section of the elements was selected and their mass was calculated. Then a comparison of the various options for supporting by the weight of the structure was made. In the article, the optimization problem was solved according to the optimality criterion of metal consumption, restrictions in the form of overall dimensions, topology and strength conditions.
Keywords: space grid structures, optimization, metal consumption, control parameter
In connection with the increase in production activity in the winter and in remote areas, in regions close to the regions of the Far North, the use of new building materials is required. One of the most common building materials is concrete. This article describes an experimental study of the concrete substitute "HILST" for compliance with the manufacturer's declared characteristics: the ability to mix, hardening at room temperature and under adverse conditions.
Keywords: building materials, concrete, concrete substitute, HILST, mixing, experiment, adhesion, building chemistry, hydrophobicity, foundation
Currently, urbanization causes an increase in urban density and creates new opportunities for the socio-economic development of society. However, urban development changes the natural relief: it increases the roughness of the underlying surface (for example, it forms basins against the background of a flat relief), it includes many vertical surfaces, and creates rugged terrain. It results in the formation of urban heat and dry islands; it changes the precipitation rate,their frequency and intensity. Thermal conditions of cities are varied within the city itself, and the study of diversification of the intra-urban microclimate is of extreme importance for well-being of citizens and assessing the real energy demand of buildings. This requires new approached to modeling the urban microclimate, since the a set of different factors influence its changes and developement.
Keywords: urban microclimate, urban density, environment, solar radiation, aeration regime, thermal conditions, urban heat island, wind speed, building, urbanization