The paper is focused on the building heightening technologies employing modular structures, and in particular, three-dimensional units. It lists the global leaders in the field of manufacturing of three-dimensional/modular units and examines the work stages based on the analysis of scientific publications and patent searches. It is noted that the process arrangement upgraded to the current state of the art and the improved energy efficiency performance of a superstructure are mainly achieved through the use of modular units with greater dimensions but with a lighter weight.
Keywords: reconstruction, technology, energy efficiency, superstructure, modular constructions, volume blocks, organizational and technological solutions
This paper is a follow-up on the first part, which also reviews the process arrangement solutions for building reconstruction based on building heightening using modular structures. It highlights the importance of the use of transformer (stacked) modules, which allows improving the work process flexibility at the installation and transportation stages. It is further specified that, if reconstruction is carried out in congested urban environments, three-dimensional/modular units should be prefabricated, as prefabrication helps to significantly reduce a gap between the actual and standardized work timelines, even in case of force majeure.
Keywords: superstructure, organizational and technological solutions, transforming three-dimensional blocks, assembly and transport manufacturability
The paper discusses specific reasons for strengthening footings and reinforcing foundations and explores the principal technologies for installing auger cast piles used for reconstruction of building systems. In order to identify the key benefits of using auger cast piles, the existing technologies are analyzed based on the study of domestic and foreign patents. The main principles are set out underlying an economically sound, technically and technologically justified choice of foundation reinforcement technology.
Keywords: reconstruction, bearing capacity, strengthening, reinforcement, piles, anchors, patent search, drawbacks and benefits
The article discusses the basic principles of information modeling of building systems that underlie BIM technology, and emphasizes the importance of their interaction, since the correctness and efficiency of the BIM process depends on this. The traditional and some basic curves characteristic of the life cycle of goods (products), which have found application in marketing theory, is given. It is noted that each stage of the life cycle of a construction object requires in-depth study and detailed study, since the analysis of scientific publications and the current regulatory document on information modeling revealed their contradiction to each other in some positions.
Keywords: information modeling, principles, life cycle curves, capital construction object, normative document.
The importance of ensuring reliable operation of steel vertical tanks is emphasized. Based on the analysis of a number of scientific publications and regulatory documents, the most characteristic defects are presented in tabular form by groups, the combination of which determines the choice of the method of overhaul or reconstruction of tanks. In accordance with the data given in the table, the most common methods of overhaul and reconstruction of steel vertical tanks are considered.It is noted the need to develop organizational and technological solutions based on information technology, using servers for monitoring through the GLONASS / GPS systems, which will allow, within the framework of monitoring, to detect defects and damage to structural elements in a timely manner during the operation stage and ensure their elimination in order to increase the residual life of vertical steel tanks .
Keywords: residual life, causes of defects, welds, cracks, work methods
The focus of attention is on the possibility of replacing exterior envelope structures for reconstruction of industrial buildings with the aim of increasing the plant areas. The operating procedures are shown alongside the material characteristics ensuring energy efficiency of reconstruction. The paper underlines that the justification of the optimal choice of a process setup / technology solution is an important stage in building reconstruction.
Keywords: three-layer envelope structures, fiber-reinforced foamed concrete units, composite foams, insulating properties, lightweight, efficiency
The paper justifies the relevance and reviews the issues of energy efficient reconstruction of a construction system at various lifecycle stages, underlining that reconstruction needs to be viewed as a separate phase of the property lifecycle. Despite the fact that construction systems are static, all lifecycle stages are dynamic and require complex control. The diagrams are provided to show the building’s lifecycle and the process of stagewise supervision of energy efficient reconstruction by the client.
Keywords: lifecycle, stage, phase, target system, process layout/structure, performance monitoring
The article emphasizes the importance of monolithic construction and substantiates its advantages. At the same time, it is noted that the erection of monolithic reinforced concrete structures is a laborious process, especially when it comes to the construction and stripping of the formwork system. It is indicated that the large weight of modern formwork systems reduces the manufacturability of work, and therefore, active research is currently underway to develop formwork systems made of composite materials that are lightweight, durable, relatively durable, safe and environmentally friendly. The technologies for creating formwork systems are given.
Keywords: inventory and fixed formwork systems, selection criteria, additive and traditional technologies
The paper argues for the relevance of using volumetric modular units (VMU) in construction, especially in building temporary field camps. Despite a high installation technology intensity, the use of VMUs is said to demonstrate a low technology intensity in terms of transport operations. In order to ensure a high transport flexibility for temporary settlements, collapsible volumetric modular units are suggested as a potent solution.
Keywords: modular construction, assembly and transport adaptability, collapsible construction
The paper highlights the importance of the contingency-focused development of organizational and technological solutions for strengthening reinforced concrete columns based on multiple criteria. The main criteria for optimal technology selection are identified, and the algorithm for the performance of works is presented. The complexity of selection unaided by computerprograms is brought to notice.
Keywords: strengthening of columns, multiple criteria, optimal technology selection, structuring, expert reviews, performance algorithms
The paper explores the use ofpolycarbonate modular systems in the construction of translucent building envelopsfor sports facilities. Basedonthecomparisonofthelighttransmissionperformance involving the most widely used translucent materials, it is easy to see that they are inferior to nearly all other materials. Certain characteristics of cellular polycarbonate sheets are summarized intabularform depending on the number of layers and the cellular structure. Further emphasis is made on the fact the existing lock connections for assembly of large-scale planar structures are not always consistent with the constructability and occupational safety requirements.
Keywords: polycarbonatemodular systems, cellular polycarbonate, light transmission, cellular structure,lock connection
The paper discusses certain thermal insulation materials, which, according to national and foreign researchers, are capable of ensuring the utmost energy efficiency of vertical enclosures of buildings and works. Based on the comparative analysis of some of the main thermal insulation properties and performance characteristics, the most energy efficient materials were identified among the materials offered for consideration. The key benefits and drawbacks of these materials are further provided in tabular form. The point is made that the optimal selection of energy efficient materials shall be arranged as a comprehensive computer-aided process, because the market of modern thermal insulation materials is huge. The selection process shall include the ranking of materials based on specific criteria.
Keywords: energy saving, thermal performance, thermal insulators, liquid ceramic thermal insulators, composite foam, environmental performance
The paper summarizes the analysis of a variety of foreign and national scientific publications focused on the topic in question. It explores the opportunities to use modular structures, especially three-dimensional modular units as a part of superstructure for building reconstruction. The point is made that the use of transforming three-dimensional modular units helps considerably reduce transport costs. Despite a number of drawbacks inherent in modular units, the use of three-dimensional counterparts is suggested to be viewed as one of the promising ways of accomplishing energy efficient reconstruction.
Keywords: superstructure, modular structures, three-dimensional units, efficient reconstruction
The purpose of this paper is to identify to main areas of application of fibrous concrete based on the overview of foreign scientific works published over the last year. It is found that the studies are mainly focused on possible applications of fibrous concrete that are aimed at strengthening brick, concrete and wooden structural elements as part of building reconstruction. Part of the studies discusses the issue of recycling construction waste, especially glass and concrete, and using it to produce fibrous concrete. This approach allows maintaining the environmental balance, as the issues of industrial waste disposal remain topical for all countries of the world.
Keywords: Application of fibrous concrete, recycling of construction waste, environmental conservation
The paper discusses the contemporary technologies for making glass envelopes by way of planar glazing as part of reconstruction of buildings and facilities. It is highlighted that polyvalent multi-layer external walls are considered by many scientists as a mechanism for improving energy efficiency of façade systems. Based on the analysis of the research literature, the authors also note that spider glazing is optimal for two-layered glass envelopes, as it is suitable for use as part of reconstruction of frame and frameless buildings. Adaptive façade systems are suggested to be arranged with the use of brackets having a telescopic glass holder.
Keywords: energy efficiency, reconstruction, glass envelops, adaptive buildings, translucent façade, spider glazing, glass holder