The development of technical devices in almost all industries is aimed at creating universal devices that allow performing several operations. The forest industry is no exception. The creation of a taxation tool that provides the ability to perform several measuring operations, which is the goal of the work, will increase the efficiency of the taxator while reducing the physical load on him due to the need to have fewer measuring instruments with him. All this indicates the relevance of this work. To achieve this goal, a number of tasks were solved in the course of the work, the main of which were: analysis of known designs of taxation instruments, synthesis of new technical solutions for their unification, patenting of a new technical solution. The use of system analysis made it possible to achieve the set goal, to propose a new patentable solution for a taxation device that combines the functions of an altimeter and a full gauge. The approach described in the paper to the creation of new designs of universal taxation devices can be used in teaching engineering creativity to students.
Keywords: full gauge, altimeter, taxation, forestry
The creation of laboratory equipment that provides a clear demonstration of the studied technological processes while ensuring the possibility of its use for research purposes by students is an urgent task. Purpose of the work: development of a stand design for a visual demonstration to students of the process of the impact of the cutting working body on the workpiece while ensuring the possibility of fixing the characteristics of the cutting process. In the course of the work, on the basis of system analysis, the classification of laboratory equipment for studying the cutting process was carried out, its features were studied, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages, and an original design of the stand was proposed. The design of the stand provides an opportunity to study the characteristics of the cutting process with a fixed fixation of the workpiece and the movement of the cutting tool, which clearly simulates the real cutting process and allows you to determine its parameters.
Keywords: cutting, chip formation, student training
The problem of creating advanced technologies and equipment to increase the efficiency of forest regeneration by seedlings and seedlings of forest crops has not been finally solved and is an urgent task today. Of particular concern is the lack of patented equipment for the renewal of forests by seedlings and seedlings of forest crops that are competitive in the domestic and foreign markets. The purpose of the research is to prove that the basis of the search for solutions to the synthesis of patentable solutions that increase the efficiency of forest regeneration by seedlings and seedlings of forest crops can be laid the formation of a knowledge base on the basis of patent information search, and the use of a functional structural and technological analysis. In the course of the work, a classification of the main areas of patenting in the mentioned area was carried out and it was shown that the use of the proposed approach allowed the authors to develop and patent a number of new technical solutions for the equipment of forest regeneration by seedlings and seedlings of forest crops.
Keywords: forest regeneration, seedling, seedling, patent, synthesis of patentable solutions, functional-structural-technological analysis
The purpose of research is to form a knowledge base in the field of creating advanced technical solutions for the use of crushed stone in various industries, as well as for the synthesis of new technical solutions. As such solutions, the solutions are considered, which are considered in patents for inventions and utility models of Russia, published in recent years. To achieve this goal, a system analysis method was used, performed according to the results of a patent information search. As a result of the work carried out, the classification of the main areas of patenting in this area was carried out, information was collected and systematized to form knowledge bases for the synthesis of new technical solutions
Keywords: high-strength concrete, road surface, patent, industry, road construction, crushed stone
Dosing of various substances and materials are widely used in the chemical, petrochemical, food, medical, pharmaceutical, agro-industrial complex and other branches of science and technology. Research and development of new intellectual property objects, including those aimed at increasing the share of labor automation in this area, are actively conducted in many countries of the world. This determines the need for accelerated development of domestic technologies and equipment competitive in the Russian and foreign markets for automated dosing and packaging of various substances and materials, including liquid, bulk, puree, viscous and others. Based on a systematic patent information search, a systematic analysis of technologies, machines and equipment for dosing in industry, agriculture and the social sphere has been performed. A knowledge base has been compiled and systematized in the field of technologies and equipment for dosing in industry, agriculture and the social sphere. The results can be used to develop new technical solutions for improving equipment and technologies used in various fields of science and technology
Keywords: knowledge base, industrial dosing, intellectual property objects, patent search, system analysis
In the course of the system analysis of scientific and technical information, including patents, it has been established that currently the forestry sector is actively patenting technical and technological solutions for basic operations, but not enough attention is paid to building knowledge bases in the field of technologies and equipment for non-timber forest resources. The formation of databases in this area is caused by identified trends in product development from various types of natural raw materials for the pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic industry and other areas of the social sphere and economy. Among the types of natural raw materials, an important place is occupied by raw materials with a wide range of biological effects, including chaga birch fungus. The development of the knowledge base in the field of engaging chaga in various spheres of the social sphere and economy is based on system analysis and patent search.
Keywords: knowledge base, birch mushroom, intellectual property, forest complex, non-timber forest resources, patent, intellectual property, chaga
the necessity of accelerated development of competitive in the Russian and foreign markets of domestic machines and equipment for the prevention and suppression of forest fires is shown. The system analysis of technologies, machines and equipment for prevention and suppression of forest fires is carried out on the basis of the extended patent information search. Special attention is paid to technologies, machines and equipment that provide cutting of trees and bushes in the continuous movement of basic forest tractors. The knowledge base in the field of technologies, machines and equipment for removal of trees and bushes is formed. It is suggested that the prospects of their use in the systems of machines for the prevention and suppression of forest fires. The equipment of such machines can be included in the set of multifunctional equipment for a forest tractor. The technological and technical solutions developed by the authors for the variants of technologies of cutting trees and bushes with the continuous movement of basic forest tractors, machines and elements of their structures for such technologies are presented
Keywords: knowledge base, tree and shrub vegetation, forest fires, multifunctional forest machine, system analysis
To form a knowledge base, a systematic analysis of patentable technologies and equipment for handling spent nuclear fuel was carried out. In the analysis, intellectual knowledge bases were formed regarding the technology and equipment objects being improved or replaced, taking into account their role in the end-to-end technologies and related operations of these processes. The research results showed the effectiveness of the formation of a knowledge base and its use for the synthesis of new intellectual property. As a result of the work done, new technical solutions were found regarding the design of containers for transporting and storing spent nuclear fuel from nodular cast iron. The significance of the solutions found is confirmed by obtaining patents for invention in their respect.
Keywords: spent nuclear fuel, patent, transportation and storage, transport and packaging containers
An analysis of the use of modern technologies based on the use of physical phenomena, namely, vacuum and microwave effects in the dehydration of food products, is given. On the basis of generalization and analysis of studies of domestic and foreign scientists it was shown that these technologies are promising for such plant raw materials as fruits and vegetables, and their effectiveness depends on the characteristics of the raw materials being enriched
Keywords: vacuum, microwave exposure, dehydration of food, drying
A system analysis of technologies and equipment for logging work was carried out in order to synthesize new solutions. It is based on the original functional and technological analysis of objects of logging technologies and equipment, worked out on a number of basic operations of timber industry. In the analysis, intellectual knowledge bases are being formed on technologies and equipment that are being improved or replaced, their role in the end-to-end technologies of timber production and related operations of these processes is taken into account. It is shown that it is advisable to harvest industrial wood with harvesters and forwarders during their cyclical work, to conduct forestry operations, to prevent and extinguish forest fires during the continuous movement of forest machines. As a result of the analysis, technical solutions were found for the technology of work and the structural elements of the multifunctional forest machine protected by patents.
Keywords: knowledge bases, logging work, methodology, multifunctional forest machine, system analysis
when analyzing container designs for transportation and storage of spent nuclear fuel, a tendency is revealed to improve them using the innovative potential of modern achievements in science and technology. The modernized design of the container is proposed, which includes a molded body with an internal volume under the cover. In the wall of the case, a neutron-protective barrier is poured from the material with a melting point higher than the melting point of the shell material and a thermal conductivity coefficient not less than that of the cast housing material. The barrier prevents the free passage of neutrons in the radial directions
Keywords: nuclear energy, container, spent nuclear fuel, transportation and storage
The use of low-temperature plasma in industry and the social sphere is given serious attention in Russia and abroad. Plasma technologies are environmentally friendly and allow solving the problems of resource saving and energy saving. The article is devoted to the search for directions for using low-temperature plasma and the creation of appropriate technologies and equipment in industry and the social sphere. Based on the analysis of scientific, technical and patent information, the opinion was expressed that the potential of low-temperature plasmas in forestry and in the timber industry is underestimated
Keywords: Low-temperature plasma, industrial and social applications, forest seeds, pre-sowing treatment
The estimation of intensity of patenting of results of intellectual activity by a scientific group is offered in the article. An example of its calculation is given following the analysis of Petrozavodsk State University data
Keywords: index of intensity of patenting, research group, university, h-index, RSCI
the development of a network of logging roads and increasing the efficiency of its functioning is the most important factor in increasing the economic accessibility of forest resources and intensifying forest management in the regions of the European North of Russia. Substantial development of the network of forest roads is necessary to increase the availability of forests for continuous and selective cutting, thinning, reforestation. It is also necessary to improve the efficiency of the operation of logging road trains while exporting forests, to increase the degree of development of the allowable cutting area, to increase the level of forest fire safety of forests, and to prevent and extinguish forest fires.
Keywords: availability of forest resources, logging roads, timber road truck, local stone materials, road construction
The developed calculation dependencies for determining the log truck movement indicators during non-steady and steady motion in different modes make it possible to solve technical-economic tasks with adequate accuracy and certainty during planning and optimization of wood transportation. During two-stage timber hauling a log truck based on MAZ-6312B9 has advantages in exploitation and technical-economic indicators in comparison with a log truck based on Scania R-420. There are opportunities for a rapid increase of passing ability of a log truck while using an active trailer. This provides the work of a complete log truck on a forest road, and also there is a possibility to eliminate two-stage timber hauling, with rise of efficiency and technical-economic indicators
Keywords: wood transport, optimization, log trucks, motion simulation, efficiency