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  • Use of cold storage in the air conditioning system of a sports complex

    Refrigerating machines are designed to cover peak heat generation in public buildings. At the same time, peak loads are often short-term and most of the time the refrigerating machines operate at 40-60% of their maximum capacity. The article deals with the issues of uneven cold consumption on the example of a sports complex located in Volgograd. When designing the air conditioning system of the games hall, a cooling system with the use of "chiller-fan coils"is used. An effective solution to reduce costs is to include a cold storage battery in the cooling station circuit. The use of a cold storage battery allows you to reduce operating costs.

    Keywords: cooling system, air conditioning system, refrigeration machine, cold storage, energy consumption, peak loads, variable energy consumption

  • The influence of non-stationary thermal conditions in the determination of the thermal resistance of the fence

    Reconstruction of buildings inevitably entails improving the thermal protection of premises, however, the development of measures for the thermal insulation of the existing building structures is impossible without evaluation of thermal characteristics of these structures, primarily the resistence to heat transfer. Evaluation of the materials according to their characteristics reference is often not possible. The main causes is the lack of information about construction materials to the inner layers of the long-erected buildings. Arise a number of difficulties in conducting field surveys due to the practical absence of the stationary conditions. Heat flux on the surface can change simultaneously with changes in temperature, as walling have thermal inertia, and need some time to change the temperature distribution in the structure thickness. To determine the actual heat transfer resistance of enclosing structures must take into account the dynamics of change of temperature and heat flow on the surface of the enclosure. When determining the actual heat transfer resistance needs to consider the time distribution of heat waves through the walling.

    Keywords: non-stationary thermal conditions, cladding, thermophysical characteristics, thermal resistance

  • The effect of solar radiation on temperature of soil

    To describe the dynamics of the temperature field in the surface layers of the earth taken up the heat balance of the earth's surface. Taken into account are three components of the heat flow: convective heat transfer with air, solar radiation, heat flow from the surface layers of the soil. The boundary conditions on the surface of the soil is considered the temperature of the ground surface, which is determined from the heat balance of the surface layer of the sun radiation. The temperature distribution in the soil is determined using the method of finite differences. A layer of soil has a certain thermal inertia, which leads to delaying the achievement of minimum temperatures in the soil column relative to the time of achievement of the minimum surface temperature. In the surface layer of soil to a depth of approximately 300 mm, is almost complete attenuation of the diurnal temperature fluctuations in the month of June with account of solar radiation in conditions of the South of Russia.

    Keywords: heat pump, возобнавляемые sources of energy, solar radiation, transient mode, soil